Coxsackieviruses are a family of nonenveloped, linear, positive-sense ssRNA viruses, Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ordinarily its members are transmitted by the fecal-oral route."myocarditis, Coxsackievirus infection was found to upregulate Toll-like receptor 4 on mast cells and macrophages immediately following infection. It also increased numbers of mast cells.
- Fairweather, D (2005). "Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity: evidence from Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis". Rev Med Virol.