The National Center for Biotechnology Information at the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines gene expression as "the phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of genetic transcription and genetic translation." Gene expression takes place in two stages. The first is transcription: the base sequence on DNA is copied to a molecule of mRNA. Next, translation: the mRNA molecule leaves the cell nucleus for the cytoplasm and specifies the particular amino acids that will make up individual proteins in the process of protein synthesis.
Gene expression analysis examines patterns of gene expression in transcription, whether under specific conditions or in certain kinds of cells.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2009, A gene signature for post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome
Learn more[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Gene Expression". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved Jan 31, 2019.
- Gow, John W; Hagan, Suzanne; Herzyk, Pawel; Cannon, Celia; Behan, Peter O; Chaudhuri, Abhijit (Jun 25, 2009). "A gene signature for post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome". BMC Medical Genomics. 2: 38. doi:10.1186/1755-8794-2-38. ISSN 1755-8794. PMC . PMID 19555476.
myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.