Dorsal root ganglion

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Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG).
Source: the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School ©2012, cropped and labelled by Betts, JG; Young, KA; Wise, JA; Johnson, E; Poe, B; Kruse, DH; Korol, O; Johnson, JE; Womble, M; DeSaix, P (April 25, 2013). "13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System". Anatomy and Physiology. OpenStax. Houston, Texas. Retrieved January 27, 2022..
License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.
Spinal Cord sectional anatomy (Note: Dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion).
Author: Bruce Blas (2016).

The most common type of sensory ganglion is the dorsal root ganglion or DRG or posterior root ganglion.[1] Ganglia are the "cell bodies of neurons with axons that are sensory endings in the periphery, such as in the skin, and that extend into the CNS through the dorsal nerve root." Ganglia is plural of ganglion.[1] Generally speaking, each vertebra of the spinal column has both afferent (sensory) and efferent (effector) nerves emerging from inside the spine, and the dorsal/posterior side of the spine is where the afferent nerve emerges. Each afferent nerve has a bulge containing the cell bodies of the neurons in the afferent nerve. This bulge is called a dorsal root ganglion.[2]

The neuron is parted of two parts:

  1. Dendrite receives the information and sends it to the Perykaron (cytoplasm which is around the nucleus).[citation needed]
  2. Axon takes this information and sends forward.[citation needed]

In human disease[edit | edit source]

"This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. Axons growing out of the ganglion are visible."[3]

Ganglionitis is inflammation of a nerve ganglion. The dorsal root ganglia can become inflamed causing severe pain and other symptoms. Conditions that can cause dorsal root ganglionitis include trauma, sciatica, compressive neuropathy, herniated disc, spinal stenosis, peripheral neuropathy, meningitis, and spinal infections[4], including Herpes simplex virus 1.[5]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Inflammation of the dorsal root ganglia (ganglionitis) has been found in the autopsies of several patients who died of very severely ill myalgic encephalomyelitis patients including Lynn Gilderdale and Sophia Mirza.[6][7][8][9][10][11]

Sjogren's syndrome[edit | edit source]

Thirteen Sjögren's syndrome patients with autonomic dysfunction were found to have lymphocytic (T‐cell) infiltration in the dorsal roots and ganglia. Electrophysical studies also found involvement of the dorsal root ganglia.[12] Antiganglion autoantibodies have been detected in patients with sensory neuronopathy.[12]

Chronic pain[edit | edit source]

Changes in microRNA expression in the dorsal root ganglia are consistently found in pre-clinical chronic pain patients, leading to clinical trials targetting dorsal root ganglia stimulation as a potential treatment for chronic pain.[13][14]

Learn more [edit | edit source]

  • 2014, Inflammation in dorsal root ganglia after peripheral nerve injury: Effects of the sympathetic innervation[16]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Betts, JG; Young, KA; Wise, JA; Johnson, E; Poe, B; Kruse, DH; Korol, O; Johnson, JE; Womble, M; DeSaix, P (April 25, 2013). "13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System". Anatomy and Physiology. OpenStax. Houston, Texas. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
  2. "Ganglion | physiology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  3. "Dorsal root ganglia : Wikis (The Full Wiki)". Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ma, C.; Greenquist, K.W.; Lamotte, R.H. (April 2006). "Inflammatory mediators enhance the excitability of chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion neurons". Journal of Neurophysiology. 95 (4): 2098–2107. doi:10.1152/jn.00748.2005. ISSN 0022-3077. PMID 16381809.
  5. Slavin, Konstantin V.; Jain, Paavani; Rathore, Ranvir S.; Rakic, Andrei M.; Rathore, Jaivir S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor (2017). "Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglionitis". Case Reports in Neurology. 9 (2): 188–194. doi:10.1159/000479146. ISSN 1662-680X. PMID 28966586.
  6. O'Donovan D, Harrower T, Cader S, Findley L, Shepherd C, Chaudhuri A (2010), "Pathology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Pilot Study of four autopsy cases.", International Science Symposium 3-4 – Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Queensland, Australia: Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University
  7. Vink, Mark (September 10, 2015). "The Aerobic Energy Production and the Lactic Acid Excretion are both Impeded in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Journal of Neurology and Neurobiology (ISSN 2379-7150). 1. doi:10.16966/2379-7150.112.
  8. Cader S, O'Donovan DG, Shepherd C, Chaudhuri A, "FP03-MO-02 Neuropathology of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome", J Neurol Sci, 285: S60–S61, doi:10.1016/S0022-510X%2809%2970274-6
  9. Wilkinson, Damon (April 1, 2018). "Bed-bound and in unimaginable pain, watching my daughter waste away and die from ME was torture". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  10. Mirza, Sophia (November 15, 2005). "Certified Copy of an Entry - Death". Sophia and ME. City and County of Brighton and Hove.
  11. Speedy, Maik (April 16, 2011). "Lynn Gilderdale's autopsy showed 'dorsal root ganglionitis' - infected nerve roots, just like Sophia Mirza's". NICE guidelines.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Malinow, K.; Yannakakis, G.D.; Glusman, S.M.; Edlow, D.W.; Griffin, J.; Pestronk, A.; Powell, D.L.; Ramsey‐Goldman, R.; Eidelman, B.H. (1986). "Subacute sensory neuronopathy secondary to dorsal root ganglionitis in primary Sjögren's syndrome". Annals of Neurology. 20 (4): 535–537. doi:10.1002/ana.410200416. ISSN 1531-8249.
  13. Montague-Cardoso, Karli; Malcangio, Marzia (September 14, 2020). "The role of microRNAs in neurons and neuroimmune communication in the dorsal root ganglia in chronic pain". Neuroscience Letters. 735: 135230. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135230. ISSN 0304-3940.
  14. Deer, Timothy R.; Grigsby, Eric; Weiner, Richard L.; Wilcosky, Bernard; Kramer, Jeffery M. (2013). "A Prospective Study of Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for the Relief of Chronic Pain". Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 16 (1): 67–72. doi:10.1111/ner.12013. ISSN 1525-1403.
  15. "dorsal root ganglionitis - Kay Gilderdale writes of her late, severely affected, daughter". August 14, 2013.
  16. McLachlan, Elspeth M.; Ping, Hu (May 1, 2014). "Inflammation in dorsal root ganglia after peripheral nerve injury: Effects of the sympathetic innervation". Autonomic Neuroscience. 182: 108–117. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2013.12.009. ISSN 1566-0702.
  17. Rathore, Jaivir; Slavin, Konstantin; Rathore, Ranvir; Rakic, Andrei; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor (April 6, 2015). "Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Dorsal Root Ganglionitis in a 34 Year Old Male With Occipital Neuralgia Refractory to Medical and Radiofrequency Ablation Therapies: A Clinicopathological Report and Literature Review". Neurology. 84 (14 Supplement): P1.293. ISSN 0028-3878.
  18. "Dorsal Root Ganglionitis - infection of inflammation?". Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums. Retrieved August 16, 2018.