The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, medium protein, low carbohydrate diet primarily used for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. It induces ketosis, a metabolic state in which the body derives most of its energy from ketones rather than glucose.
- 1 Types of ketogenic diets
- 2 Evidence for a ketogenic diet
- 3 Risks & side effects
- 4 Notable studies
- 5 Medium chain triglycerides (MCT)
- 6 Exogenous ketones
- 7 Clinical use
- 8 Learn more
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Types of ketogenic diets[edit | edit source]
Evidence for a ketogenic diet[edit | edit source]
General effects[edit | edit source]
Epilepsy[edit | edit source]
Neurotransmitters regulate nerve impulses is the brain by either inhibiting impulse firing or exciting the neuron to fire. A primary inhibitory neurotransmitters is GABA and a primary excitatory neurotransmitters is glutamate. In patients with epilepsy, if the normal balance of inhibition and excitation is disrupted, a seizure can occur.
It us unknown why ketogenic diets are protective against epilepsy. In animal models, the ketone bodies acetoacetate and acetone have anticonvulsant properities through a novel pathway. Ketone bodies are also a more efficient fuel than glucose.
The Charlie Foundation supports the use of ketogenic diets with children with severe epilepsy.
Neurodegenerative diseases[edit | edit source]
A study found dietary ketosis enhanced memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]
No studies have been done on the effects of ketogenic diets in Chronic fatigue syndrome. Some CFS clinicians recommend ketogenic diets as a management strategy citing mitochondrial dysfunction, immune dysfunction, and neuroinflammation as pathways through which ketogenic diets could confer some benefit.
Risks & side effects[edit | edit source]
- The ketogenic diet was found to regulate blood sugar but over the long term cause fat to accumulate in the liver in an animal model of Type II Diabetes.
- Two children on the diet for refractory epilepsy had selenium deficiency which resulted in sudden cardiac death.
- Diet Debunked: The Ketogenic Diet YouTube (2017) "The keto diet has a dark side that only few in the community have the courage to confront and it is all based on the scientific literature."
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- Efficacy and Safety of Ketogenic Diet as Adjunctive Treatment in Adults With Refractory Epilepsy (KD) (This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.)
Medium chain triglycerides (MCT)[edit | edit source]
Supplementation with medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) increases blood levels of ketones. They are often used in ketogenic diets to help maintain ketosis at a lower proportion of fat intake. A study showed improved cognition in Alzheimer's disease patients.
Exogenous ketones[edit | edit source]
Ketone salts can be supplemented so that ketone bodies are present in the blood at higher concentrations, indicating ketosis, much more quickly than with a typical ketogenic diet.
Clinical use[edit | edit source]
Doctor Sarah Myhill has a page on her web site describing the ketogenic diet. Doctor Courtney Craig has published a hypothesis on the treatment of mitochondrial failure in ME/CFS using a ketogenic diet, as well as caloric restriction and fasting.
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- 2017, Getting Clear on Ketogenic Diets (for Fibromyalgia and ME/CFS): A Review
- Wikipedia - Ketogenic diet
- Ketogenic Diet Resource
- Wikipedia - Fatty acid metabolism
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Rho, Jong M; Rogawski, Michael A (Mar 2007), "The Ketogenic Diet: Stoking the Powerhouse of the Cell", Epilepsy Currents, 7 (2): 58–60, doi:10.1111/j.1535-7511.2007.00170.x, PMID 17505556
- Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J (31 Mar 2011), "Mild Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Calorie Restriction Increase Fasting eNOS, Akt and Mitochondrial Biogenesis", PLOS ONE, 6 (3): –18433, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018433
- Hartman, Adam L; Gasior, Maciej; Vining, Eileen P G; Rogawski, Michael A (May 2007), "The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet", Pediatric neurology, 36 (5): 281–292, doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.02.008, PMID 17509459
- | title = The Charlie Foundation for Ketogenic Therapies | url = http://www.charliefoundation.org/
- Gasior, Maciej; Rogawski, Michael A; Hartman, Adam L (Sep 2006), "Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet", Behavioural Pharmacology, 17 (5-6): 431–439, PMID 16940764
- Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S (2014-06-13), "Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex", Neuroscience Letters, 571: 1–4, doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.04.016, PMID 24769322
- Cheng, Baohua; Yang, Xinxin; An, Liangxiang; et al. (2009-08-25), "Ketogenic diet protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity via up-regulating glutathione in a rat model of Parkinson's disease", Brain Research, 1286: 25–31, doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.06.060
- Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J (Feb 2012), "Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment", Neurobiology of Aging, 33 (2): 425–19–27, doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.10.006, PMID 21130529
- Segura, Gabriela (9 Aug 2013), Ketogenic diet - a connection between mitochondria and diet
- Craig, Courtney (30 Mar 2015), A Ketogenic Diet for ME/CFS & Fibro
- Myhill, S; Booth, NE; McLaren-Howard, J (15 Jan 2009), "Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction", Int J Clin Exp Med, 2 (1): 1–16, PMID 19436827
- Zhang, Xiaoyu; Qin, Juliang; Zhao, Yihan; Shi, Jueping; Lan, Rong; Gan, Yunqiu; Ren, Hua; Zhu, Bing; Qian, Min; Du, Bing (1 Apr 2016), "Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice", Nutrition Research, 36 (4): 349–358, doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.002
- Sudden Cardiac Death in Association With the Ketogenic Diet - Pediatric Neurology - December 2008
- Wikipedia - Ketogenic diet, MCT oil
- Reger, Mark A; Henderson, Samuel T; Hale, Cathy; et al. (Mar 2004), "Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults", Neurobiology of Aging, 25 (3): 311–314, doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(03)00087-3, PMID 15123336
- Keys to Ketosis (11 Jan 2016), The Beginner's Guide to Exogenous Ketones
- Myhill, Sarah, Ketogenic diet - the practical details
- Craig, Courtney (November 2015), "Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets", Medical Hypotheses, 85 (5): 690-693, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.08.013, PMID 26315446