Staphylococcus aureus

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Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacteria that is a member of the Firmicutes phylum. It is found in 30% of the human population. Often commensal but it can sometimes causes disease, including infections of the skin and endocarditis. It also commonly colonizes the human gut.[1][2][3] and can also colonize the nose.[4][5]

Possible biochemical effects[edit | edit source]

S. aureus produce coagulase, an enzyme that causes blood clotting.

The presence of S. aureus in a model of the human gut decreased the production of butyrate.[6]

Staphyloccocus bacteria produce alpha toxin.[citation needed]

In chronic disease[edit | edit source]

Higher levels of S. aureus was found in the mouths of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.[7] A higher prevalence was also found in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,[8] and is implicated in traumatic brain injury.[9]

Probiotics[edit | edit source]

Several probiotics were found to reduce adhesion of S. aureus to the human gut including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.[10]

Herbs[edit | edit source]

Herbs shown to inhibit S. aureus include Bacopa monnieri,[11] green tea extracts,[12] turmeric,[13] milk thistle,[14] nigella,[15] cinnamon,[16] and shrubby sophora.[17][18][19] This may suggest a role for equilibrant and protandim in the control of S. aureus.

Mastic gum also has anti-S. aureus activity.[20]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Lindberg, E.; Adlerberth, I.; Matricardi, P.; Bonanno, C.; Tripodi, S.; Panetta, V.; Hesselmar, B.; Saalman, R.; Aberg, N. (August 2011). "Effect of lifestyle factors on Staphylococcus aureus gut colonization in Swedish and Italian infants". Clinical Microbiology and Infection: The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 17 (8): 1209–1215. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03426.x. ISSN 1469-0691. PMID 21073631.
  2. Wold, Agnes E.; Åberg, Nils; Strannegård, Inga-Lisa; Saalman, Robert; Hesselmar, Bill; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Lindberg, Erika (February 1, 2004). "High Rate of Transfer of Staphylococcus aureus from Parental Skin to Infant Gut Flora". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 42 (2): 530–534. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.2.530-534.2004. ISSN 0095-1137. PMID 14766812.
  3. Lina, Gerard; Wold, Agnes E.; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Åberg, Nils; Strannegård, Inga-Lisa; Saalman, Robert; Hesselmar, Bill; Lindberg, Erika; Vandenesch, François (September 1, 2011). "Adhesin and Superantigen Genes and the Capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to Colonize the Infantile Gut". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 204 (5): 714–721. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir388. ISSN 0022-1899.
  4. Acton, D. S.; Tempelmans Plat-Sinnige, M.J.; van Wamel, W.; de Groot, N.; van Belkum, A. (August 8, 2008). "Intestinal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: how does its frequency compare with that of nasal carriage and what is its clinical impact?". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 28 (2): 115. doi:10.1007/s10096-008-0602-7. ISSN 1435-4373.
  6. Clarke, Simon R.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Costabile, Adele; Sannasiddappa, Thippeswamy H. (August 9, 2011). "The Influence of Staphylococcus aureus on Gut Microbial Ecology in an In Vitro Continuous Culture Human Colonic Model System". PLOS ONE. 6 (8): e23227. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023227. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3153491. PMID 21858036.
  7. Almståhl, A.; Wikström, M.; Kroneld, U. (May 2001). "Microflora in oral ecosystems in primary Sjögren's syndrome". The Journal of Rheumatology. 28 (5): 1007–1013. ISSN 0315-162X. PMID 11361180.
  8. Rinttilä, Teemu; Lyra, Anna; Krogius-Kurikka, Lotta; Palva, Airi (April 26, 2011). "Real-time PCR analysis of enteric pathogens from fecal samples of irritable bowel syndrome subjects". Gut Pathogens. 3 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-3-6. ISSN 1757-4749. PMC 3111350. PMID 21518462.
  9. Sjögren, A.M.; Thelestam, M.; Blomqvist, L.; Lindå, H.; Remahl, S.; Risling, M. (September 20, 1991). "Extravasation of staphylococcal alpha-toxin in normal and injured CNS regions lacking blood-brain barrier function: observations after ventral root replantation". Brain Research. 559 (2): 276–282. ISSN 0006-8993. PMID 1794101.
  10. Vesterlund, Satu; Karp, Matti; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C. (2006). "Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria". Microbiology. 152 (6): 1819–1826. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28522-0.
  12. Bashir, S.; Khan, B.M.; Babar, M.; Andleeb, S.; Hafeez, M.; Ali, S.; Khan, M.F. (July 2014). "Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents". Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 76 (4): 364–370. ISSN 0250-474X. PMC 4171874. PMID 25284935.
  13. Afrose, R.; Saha, S. K.; Banu, L.A.; Ahmed, A. U.; Shahidullah, A.S.; Gani, A.; Sultana, S.; Kabir, M.R.; Ali, M.Y. (July 2015). "Antibacterial Effect of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli". Mymensingh medical journal: MMJ. 24 (3): 506–515. ISSN 1022-4742. PMID 26329948.
  14. Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Young; Cha, Jeong-Dan (November 2011). "Synergistic effects between silibinin and antibiotics on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens". Biotechnology Journal. 6 (11): 1397–1408. doi:10.1002/biot.201000422. ISSN 1860-7314. PMID 21491604.
  15. Lairungruang, Kriyapa; Itharat, Arunporn; Panthong, Sumalee (August 2014). "Antimicrobial activity of extracts from a Thai traditional remedy called Kabpi for oral and throat infection and its plant components". Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet. 97 (Supp 8): S108–115. ISSN 0125-2208. PMID 25518302.
  16. Urbaniak, Anna; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Lysakowska, Monika; Sienkiewicz, Monika (2014). "[The antibacterial activity of cinnamon oil on the selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria]". Medycyna Doswiadczalna I Mikrobiologia. 66 (2): 131–141. ISSN 0025-8601. PMID 25369660.
  17. Chen, Li; Cheng, Xiaofang; Shi, Wenyuan; Lu, Qingyi; Go, Vay Liang; Heber, David; Ma, Lili (July 2005). "Inhibition of Growth of Streptococcus mutans, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci by Kurarinone, a Bioactive Flavonoid Isolated from Sophora flavescens". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 43 (7): 3574–3575. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3574-3575.2005. ISSN 0095-1137. PMC 1169149. PMID 16000511.
  18. Fakhimi, Ali; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Amin-Ar-Ramimeh, Esam; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza (September 2006). "Sophoraflavanone G from sophora pachycarpa enhanced the antibacterial activity of gentamycin against Staphylococcus aureus". Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences. 61 (9–10): 769–772. ISSN 0939-5075. PMID 17137127.
  19. Yamaki, Masae; Kashihara, Mikiko; Takagi, Shuzo (1990). "Activity of Ku Shen compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans". Phytotherapy Research. 4 (6): 235–236. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650040607. ISSN 1099-1573.
  20. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of mastic gum (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in broth and in Model Food System, Chrysoula C. Tassou, a, G.J.E. Nychasb, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation