Raynaud's syndrome

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Figure A shows arteries in the fingers (digital arteries) with normal blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of a digital artery. Figure B shows fingertips that have turned white due to blocked blood flow. Figure C shows narrowed digital arteries, causing blocked blood flow and blue fingertips. The inset image shows a cross-section of a narrowed digital artery. Source: NIH - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Raynaud's Syndrome "is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to different parts of your body."[1] It is a nervous system disease,[2] and can be a comorbid illness presenting with several other chronic illnesses, including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome.[3]

Types[edit | edit source]

  • Primary (Raynaud's disease) is more common and less severe.
  • Secondary (Raynaud's phenomenon) is caused by an underlying disease, condition or other factor. [4]

Causes[edit | edit source]

The cause of primary Raynaud’s isn't known. It is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud's. Secondary Raynaud’s is caused by an underlying disease, condition, or other factor and is often called Raynaud's phenomenon.[5]

The causes of Secondary Raynaud's are:

  • Diseases and conditions that directly damage the arteries or damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet
  • Repetitive actions that damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet
  • Injuries to the hands and feet
  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Medicines that narrow the arteries or affect blood pressure[5]

Risk factors[edit | edit source]

The risk factors for primary (Raynaud's disease) and secondary (Raynaud's phenomenon) are different.[6]

Primary

  • Gender. Women are more likely to have primary Raynaud's than men.
  • Age. Primary Raynaud's usually develops before the age of 30.
  • Family history. Primary Raynaud's may occur in members of the same family.
  • Living in a cold climate. Cold temperatures can trigger Raynaud's attacks.[6]

Secondary

  • Age. Secondary Raynaud's usually develops after the age of 30.
  • Certain diseases and conditions. For example, diseases that directly damage the arteries or damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet may cause secondary Raynaud's.
  • Injuries to the hands or feet.
  • Exposure to certain workplace chemicals, such as vinyl chloride (used in the plastics industry).
  • Repetitive actions with the hands, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
  • Certain medicines, such as migraine, cancer, cold/allergy, or blood pressure medicines.
  • Smoking.
  • Living in a cold climate.[6]

Triggers and symptoms[edit | edit source]

Cold temperatures can bring on an attack. "During an attack, little or no blood flows to affected body parts. As a result, the skin may turn white and then blue for a short time. As blood flow returns, the affected areas may turn red and throb, tingle, burn, or feel numb."[7]

Tests and diagnosis[edit | edit source]

"To distinguish between primary and secondary Raynaud's, your doctor may perform an in-office test called nail fold capillaroscopy. During the test, the doctor examines your nail fold — the skin at the base of your fingernail — under a microscope. Tiny blood vessels (capillaries) near the nail fold that are enlarged or deformed may indicate an underlying disease. However, some secondary diseases can't be detected by this test."[8]

To determine if other conditions are the underlying factor for Raynaud's there are blood tests. Antinuclear antibodies test and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate.[8]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Raynaud's | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. What Is. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  2. "ICD-10 Version:2016". icd.who.int. Retrieved May 7, 2019. 
  3. 3.03.1 Dellwo, Adrienne (Jan 28, 2018). "Cold Hands & Feet? Raynaud's Syndrome in Fibromyalgia & ME/CFS". Verywell Health. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  4. "Raynaud's | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. What Is. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  5. 5.05.1 "Health Topics | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Causes. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  6. 6.06.16.2 "Raynaud's | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Risk Factors. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  7. "Raynaud's | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  8. 8.08.1 "Raynaud's disease - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 
  9. "Frequently Asked Questions - The Raynaud's Association". The Raynaud's Association. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018. 

Antibody - Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.