Autoantibody

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An autoantibody is a type of antibody created by the immune system which targets the organism's own tissues, cells, or cell components. Many autoimmune diseases are caused by autoantibodies.

Autoantibodies found in ME/CFS and its comorbid conditions of POTS and OH[edit | edit source]

Various studies have detected autoantibodies in myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) as well as in its common comorbid conditions of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and orthostatic hypotension (OH). The table below lists the autoantibodies found in ME/CFS, POTS and OH.

Autoantibodies Found in ME/CFS, POTS and OH
Autoantibody target ME/CFS POTS OH
Neurotransmitter receptors
Adrenergic receptor alpha 1  Yes[1]
Adrenergic receptor alpha 2
Adrenergic receptor beta 1   Yes[1] Yes[2]
Adrenergic receptor beta 2 Elevated[3] Yes[1] Yes[2]
Mu-opioid receptor 15% (9 of 60), 0 of 30 controls[4]
Dopamine receptor D2 5% (3 of 60), 0 of 30 controls[4]
Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor Found in 1.7% of patients[4]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 53% (32 of 60), 0 of 30 controls[4] Yes[5]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 Yes[5] Yes[2]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 Elevated[3] Yes[2]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 Elevated[3]
Nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 Yes[6]
Nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor beta 4 Yes[6]
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor Yes[7]
Neurotransmitters
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 62% (26 of 42)[8]

61.5% (72 of 117) ME/CFS, 14% (6 of 43) "chronic fatigue", 6% (2 of 35) controls[9]

Nuclear envelope autoantibodies
Lamin B1 (intermediate filament) 52% (31 of 60) nuclear envelope antigens, mostly Lamin B1[10]
Cytoplasmic proteins (intermediate filament) 52% (31 of 60) nuclear envelope antigens, some cytoplasmic proteins[10]
Cytoplasmic membrane antibodies
Phospholipids (All) 38% (16 of 42)[8]
Cardiolipin 95% (38 of 40)[11][12]
β2 glycoprotein 
Phosphatidylinositol (PI)  [13]
Gangliosides 43% (18 of 42)[8]
Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA)
ANA (All) 56.7% (34 of 60)[4]

68% (41 of 60); 15% controls[10]

[14]

ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) [15]
dsDNA (double-stranded DNA)
Fatty Acid autoantibodies
Oleic acid [16]
Palmitic acid [16][17]
Myristic acid [16][17]
Lipid peroxidation by-products
Malondialdehyde (MDA) [16]
Azelaic acid [16]
N-oxide modified amino-acids 
NO-tyrosine [16]
NO-phenylalanine [16][17]
NO-arginine [16]
NO-tryptophan [16]
NO-cysteinyl [16]
dUTPase [18]
NO-Bovine serum albumin (nitro-BSA)  [19]
Endothelial cells 30% (24 of 81)[20]
Neuronal cells 16% (13 of 81) [20]
S-farnesyl-L-cysteine (AFC) [16][17]
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL)  [21]
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) [14]
68/48 kDa protein 13% (15 of 114); 0% controls[22]
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) 47% (28 of 60)[23]
HSP60 (Chlamydia pneumoniae peptide) 24% IgM 15 of 61)[24]
Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) [15]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.11.2 Li, Hongliang; Yu, Xichun; Liles, Campbell; Khan, Muneer; Vanderlinde-Wood, Megan; Galloway, Allison; Zillner, Caitlin; Benbrook, Alexandria; Reim, Sean (February 26, 2014). "Autoimmune basis for postural tachycardia syndrome". Journal of the American Heart Association. 3 (1): e000755. doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000755. ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 3959717. PMID 24572257.
  2. 2.02.12.22.3 Yu, Xichun; Stavrakis, Stavros; Hill, Michael A.; Huang, Shijun; Reim, Sean; Li, Hongliang; Khan, Muneer; Hamlett, Sean; Cunningham, Madeleine W. (January 2012). "Autoantibody activation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors contributes to an "autoimmune" orthostatic hypotension". Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH. 6 (1): 40–47. doi:10.1016/j.jash.2011.10.003. ISSN 1878-7436. PMC 3259269. PMID 22130180.
  3. 3.03.13.2 Loebel, Madlen; Grabowski, Patricia; Heidecke, Harald; Bauer, Sandra; Hanitsch, Leif G.; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter (February 2016). "Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 52: 32–39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.013. ISSN 1090-2139. PMID 26399744.
  4. 4.04.14.24.34.4 Tanaka, Susumu; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hakariya, Yukiko; Tatsumi, Ke-Ita; Takano, Toru; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Amino, Nobuyuki (August 2003). "Autoantibodies against muscarinic cholinergic receptor in chronic fatigue syndrome". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 12 (2): 225–230. ISSN 1107-3756. PMID 12851722.
  5. 5.05.1 Dubey, Divyanshu; Hopkins, Steve; Vernino, Steven. "M1and M2 Muscarinic receptor antibodies among patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: potential disease biomarker" (PDF).
  6. 6.06.1 Watari, Mari; Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Mori, Yukiko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Teruaki; Takamatsu, Koutaro; Kouzaki, Yanosuke (February 28, 2018). "Autoimmune postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome". Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 5 (4): 486–492. doi:10.1002/acn3.524. ISSN 2328-9503. PMC 5899914. PMID 29687025.
  7. Yu, Xichun; Li, Hongliang; Murphy, Taylor A.; Nuss, Zachary; Liles, Jonathan; Liles, Campbell; Aston, Christopher E.; Raj, Satish R.; Fedorowski, Artur (April 4, 2018). "Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Autoantibodies in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome". Journal of the American Heart Association. 7 (8). doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.008351. ISSN 2047-9980. PMID 29618472.
  8. 8.08.18.2 Klein, R.; Berg, P. A. (October 16, 1995). "High incidence of antibodies to 5-hydroxytryptamine, gangliosides and phospholipids in patients with chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia syndrome and their relatives: evidence for a clinical entity of both disorders". European Journal of Medical Research. 1 (1): 21–26. ISSN 0949-2321. PMID 9392689.
  9. Maes, Michael; Ringel, Karl; Kubera, Marta; Anderson, George; Morris, Gerwyn; Galecki, Piotr; Geffard, Michel (September 5, 2013). "In myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, increased autoimmune activity against 5-HT is associated with immuno-inflammatory pathways and bacterial translocation". Journal of Affective Disorders. 150 (2): 223–230. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.03.029. ISSN 1573-2517. PMID 23664637.
  10. 10.010.110.2 Konstantinov, K; von Mikecz, A; Buchwald, D; Jones, J; Gerace, L; Tan, E M (October 15, 1996). "Autoantibodies to nuclear envelope antigens in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 98 (8): 1888–1896. ISSN 0021-9738. PMID 8878441.
  11. Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Campora, Cara Empey; Hara, Cynthia; Kuribayashi, Tina; Le Huynh, Diana; Yabusaki, Kenichi (2009). "Anticardiolipin antibodies in the sera of patients with diagnosed chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 23 (4): 210–212. doi:10.1002/jcla.20325. ISSN 1098-2825. PMID 19623655.
  12. Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Empey‐Campora, Cara; Hara, Cynthia; Higa, Nicole; Siu, Nathaniel; Lau, Rachael; Kuribayashi, Tina; Yabusaki, Kenichi (2008). "Acute phase phospholipids related to the cardiolipin of mitochondria in the sera of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP), and other diseases attributed to chemicals, Gulf War, and marine toxins". Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 22 (2): 99–105. doi:10.1002/jcla.20217. ISSN 1098-2825. PMC 6649096. PMID 18348309.
  13. Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivanka; Leunis, Jean-Claude (December 2007). "Increased serum IgM antibodies directed against phosphatidyl inositol (Pi) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that an IgM-mediated immune response against Pi is one factor underpinning the comorbidity between both CFS and depression". Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 28 (6): 861–867. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 18063934.
  14. 14.014.1 Hilgers, A.; Frank, J. (1994). "[Chronic fatigue syndrome: immune dysfunction, role of pathogens and toxic agents and neurological and cardial changes]". Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946). 144 (16): 399–406. ISSN 0043-5341. PMID 7856214.
  15. 15.015.1 Vernon, Suzanne D; Reeves, William C (May 25, 2005). "Evaluation of autoantibodies to common and neuronal cell antigens in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Journal of Autoimmune Diseases. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1740-2557-2-5. ISSN 1740-2557. PMC 1177983. PMID 15916704.
  16. 16.0016.0116.0216.0316.0416.0516.0616.0716.0816.0916.10 Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Leunis, Jean-Claude (October 2006). "Chronic fatigue syndrome is accompanied by an IgM-related immune response directed against neopitopes formed by oxidative or nitrosative damage to lipids and proteins". Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 27 (5): 615–621. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 17159817.
  17. 17.017.117.217.3 Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Kubera, Marta; Leunis, Jean-Claude; Twisk, Frank N. M.; Geffard, Michel (December 2012). "IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against anchorage epitopes are greater in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) than in major depression". Metabolic Brain Disease. 27 (4): 415–423. doi:10.1007/s11011-012-9316-8. ISSN 1573-7365. PMID 22614823.
  18. Halpin, Peter; Williams, Marshall Vance; Klimas, Nancy G.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Barnes, Zachary; Ariza, Maria Eugenia (2017). "Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and gulf war illness patients exhibit increased humoral responses to the herpesviruses-encoded dUTPase: Implications in disease pathophysiology". Journal of Medical Virology. 89 (9): 1636–1645. doi:10.1002/jmv.24810. ISSN 1096-9071. PMC 5513753. PMID 28303641.
  19. Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Kubera, Marta; Leunis, Jean-Claude (June 2008). "An IgM-mediated immune response directed against nitro-bovine serum albumin (nitro-BSA) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that nitrosative stress is another factor underpinning the comorbidity between major depression and CFS". Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 29 (3): 313–319. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 18580855.
  20. 20.020.1 Ortega‐Hernandez, Oscar-Danilo; Cuccia, Mariaclara; Bozzini, Sara; Bassi, Nicola; Moscavitch, Samuel; Diaz‐Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Blank, Miri; Agmon‐Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda (2009). "Autoantibodies, Polymorphisms in the Serotonin Pathway, and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Alleles in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1173 (1): 589–599. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04802.x. ISSN 1749-6632.
  21. Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene (April 2011). "Increased plasma peroxides as a marker of oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)". Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. 17 (4): SC11–15. doi:10.12659/msm.881699. ISSN 1643-3750. PMC 3539515. PMID 21455120.
  22. Nishikai, M.; Tomomatsu, S.; Hankins, R. W.; Takagi, S.; Miyachi, K.; Kosaka, S.; Akiya, K. (July 2001). "Autoantibodies to a 68/48 kDa protein in chronic fatigue syndrome and primary fibromyalgia: a possible marker for hypersomnia and cognitive disorders". Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 40 (7): 806–810. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/40.7.806. ISSN 1462-0324. PMID 11477286.
  23. von Mikecz, A.; Konstantinov, K.; Buchwald, D. S.; Gerace, L.; Tan, E. M. (February 1997). "High frequency of autoantibodies to insoluble cellular antigens in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 40 (2): 295–305. ISSN 0004-3591. PMID 9041942.
  24. Elfaitouri, Amal; Herrmann, Björn; Bölin-Wiener, Agnes; Wang, Yilin; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Zachrisson, Olof; Pipkorn, Rϋdiger; Rönnblom, Lars; Blomberg, Jonas (2013). "Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis". PloS One. 8 (11): e81155. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081155. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3842916. PMID 24312270.

antibodies Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) - A form of orthostatic intolerance where the cardinal symptom is excessive tachycardia due to changing position (e.g. from lying down to sitting up).

tachycardia An unusually rapid heart beat. Can be caused by exercise or illness. A symptom of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). (Learn more: www.heart.org)

β β / Β. Greek letter beta (symbol), equivalent to "b".

membrane The word "membrane" can have different meanings in different fields of biology. In cell biology, a membrane is a layer of molecules that surround its contents. Examples of cell-biology membranes include the "cell membrane" that surrounds a cell, the "mitochondrial membranes" that form the outer layers of mitochondria, and the "viral envelope" that surrounds enveloped viruses. In anatomy or tissue biology, a membrane is a barrier formed by a layer of cells. Examples of anatomical membranes include the pleural membranes that surrounds the lungs, the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and some of the layers within the blood-brain barrier.

antibodies Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

serum The clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after clotting factors have been removed by clot formation. (Blood plasma is simply blood that has had its blood cells removed.)

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.