Autoantibody

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An autoantibody is a type of antibody created by the immune system which targets the organism's own tissues, cells, or cell components. Many autoimmune diseases are caused by autoantibodies.

Autoantibodies found in ME/CFS and its comorbid conditions of POTS and OH[edit | edit source]

Various studies have detected autoantibodies in myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) as well as in its common comorbid conditions of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and orthostatic hypotension (OH). The table below lists the autoantibodies found in ME/CFS, POTS and OH.

Autoantibodies Found in ME/CFS, POTS and OH
Autoantibody target ME/CFS POTS OH
Adrenergic receptor alpha 1  Yes[1]
Adrenergic receptor alpha 2
Adrenergic receptor beta 1   Yes[1] Yes[2]
Adrenergic receptor beta 2 Yes[3] Yes[1] Yes[2]
   
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 Yes[4] Yes[5]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 Yes[5] Yes[2]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 Yes[3] Yes[2]
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 Yes[3]
   
Nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 Yes[6]
Nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor beta 4 Yes[6]
   
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor Yes[7]
Dopamine D2 receptor Yes[4]
Mu-opioid receptor Yes[4]
Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor    Yes[4]
Serotonin (neurotransmitter) Yes[8]
Gangliosides Yes[8]
   
Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) Yes[9]
Phosphatidylinositol Yes[10]
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Yes[11][12]
Insoluble cellular antigens Yes[13]
Cardiolipin Yes[14]
Heat shock protein HSP60 Yes[15]
Anti-citrullinated protein Yes[16]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.11.2 Li, Hongliang; Yu, Xichun; Liles, Campbell; Khan, Muneer; Vanderlinde-Wood, Megan; Galloway, Allison; Zillner, Caitlin; Benbrook, Alexandria; Reim, Sean (Feb 26, 2014). "Autoimmune basis for postural tachycardia syndrome". Journal of the American Heart Association. 3 (1): e000755. doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000755. ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 3959717Freely accessible. PMID 24572257. 
  2. 2.02.12.22.3 Yu, Xichun; Stavrakis, Stavros; Hill, Michael A.; Huang, Shijun; Reim, Sean; Li, Hongliang; Khan, Muneer; Hamlett, Sean; Cunningham, Madeleine W. (Jan 2012). "Autoantibody activation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors contributes to an "autoimmune" orthostatic hypotension". Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH. 6 (1): 40–47. doi:10.1016/j.jash.2011.10.003. ISSN 1878-7436. PMC 3259269Freely accessible. PMID 22130180. 
  3. 3.03.13.2 Loebel, Madlen; Grabowski, Patricia; Heidecke, Harald; Bauer, Sandra; Hanitsch, Leif G.; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter (Feb 2016). "Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 52: 32–39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.013. ISSN 1090-2139. PMID 26399744. 
  4. 4.04.14.24.3 Tanaka, Susumu; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hakariya, Yukiko; Tatsumi, Ke-Ita; Takano, Toru; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Amino, Nobuyuki (Aug 2003). "Autoantibodies against muscarinic cholinergic receptor in chronic fatigue syndrome". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 12 (2): 225–230. ISSN 1107-3756. PMID 12851722. 
  5. 5.05.1 Dubey, Divyanshu; Hopkins, Steve; Vernino, Steven. "M1and M2 Muscarinic receptor antibodies among patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: potential disease biomarker" (PDF). 
  6. 6.06.1 Watari, Mari; Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Mori, Yukiko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Teruaki; Takamatsu, Koutaro; Kouzaki, Yanosuke (Feb 28, 2018). "Autoimmune postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome". Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 5 (4): 486–492. doi:10.1002/acn3.524. ISSN 2328-9503. PMC 5899914Freely accessible. PMID 29687025. 
  7. Yu, Xichun; Li, Hongliang; Murphy, Taylor A.; Nuss, Zachary; Liles, Jonathan; Liles, Campbell; Aston, Christopher E.; Raj, Satish R.; Fedorowski, Artur (Apr 4, 2018). "Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Autoantibodies in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome". Journal of the American Heart Association. 7 (8). doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.008351. ISSN 2047-9980. PMID 29618472. 
  8. 8.08.1 Klein, R.; Berg, P. A. (Oct 16, 1995). "High incidence of antibodies to 5-hydroxytryptamine, gangliosides and phospholipids in patients with chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia syndrome and their relatives: evidence for a clinical entity of both disorders". European Journal of Medical Research. 1 (1): 21–26. ISSN 0949-2321. PMID 9392689. 
  9. Vernon, Suzanne D.; Reeves, William C. (May 25, 2005). "Evaluation of autoantibodies to common and neuronal cell antigens in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Journal of Autoimmune Diseases. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1740-2557-2-5. ISSN 1740-2557. PMC 1177983Freely accessible. PMID 15916704. 
  10. Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivanka; Leunis, Jean-Claude (Dec 2007). "Increased serum IgM antibodies directed against phosphatidyl inositol (Pi) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that an IgM-mediated immune response against Pi is one factor underpinning the comorbidity between both CFS and depression". Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 28 (6): 861–867. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 18063934. 
  11. Nishikai, Masahiko (Jun 2007). "[Antinuclear antibodies in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome]". Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine. 65 (6): 1067–1070. ISSN 0047-1852. PMID 17561698. 
  12. Konstantinov, K; von Mikecz, A; Buchwald, D; Jones, J; Gerace, L; Tan, E M (Oct 15, 1996). "Autoantibodies to nuclear envelope antigens in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 98 (8): 1888–1896. ISSN 0021-9738. PMID 8878441. 
  13. von Mikecz, A.; Konstantinov, K.; Buchwald, D. S.; Gerace, L.; Tan, E. M. (Feb 1997). "High frequency of autoantibodies to insoluble cellular antigens in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 40 (2): 295–305. ISSN 0004-3591. PMID 9041942. 
  14. Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Campora, Cara Empey; Hara, Cynthia; Kuribayashi, Tina; Le Huynh, Diana; Yabusaki, Kenichi (2009). "Anticardiolipin antibodies in the sera of patients with diagnosed chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 23 (4): 210–212. doi:10.1002/jcla.20325. ISSN 1098-2825. PMID 19623655. 
  15. Elfaitouri, Amal; Herrmann, Björn; Bölin-Wiener, Agnes; Wang, Yilin; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Zachrisson, Olof; Pipkorn, Rϋdiger; Rönnblom, Lars; Blomberg, Jonas (2013). "Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis". PloS One. 8 (11): e81155. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081155. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3842916Freely accessible. PMID 24312270. 
  16. "Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in CFS". 

Antibody - Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) - A form of orthostatic intolerance where the cardinal symptom is excessive tachycardia due to changing position (e.g. from lying down to sitting up).

Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) - A form of orthostatic intolerance where the cardinal symptom is excessive tachycardia due to changing position (e.g. from lying down to sitting up).

Antibody - Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.