Angela Kennedy

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Angela Kennedy was an advocate for the rights of the ME community from 2003-2015. She is a carer to her daughter who was given an ME diagnosis two years into her illness. She is a sociologist primarily researching in sociology of science, medicine, disability and health. Kennedy was active with the advocacy group The One Click Group from 2004-2006. She has written extensively on the PACE trial and its flaws, on psychogenic explanations for physical impairments, and on research methodology in the literature on ME/CFS and other conditions.

Book[edit | edit source]

Angela is the author of the book Authors of our Own Misfortune? The Problems with Psychogenic Explanations for Physical Illnesses.

Notable articles[edit | edit source]

  • 'The social myth of mind over matter' in response to Chalder et al ('Epidemiology of chronic fatigue syndrome and self reported myalgic encephalomyelitis in 5-15 year olds: cross sectional study' BMJ 2003; 327: 654-655) 26 Sep 2003.[1]
  • 'Re: your own worst enemy' in response to Thomas Szasz ('The psychiatric protection order for the "battered mental patient"' BMJ 2003; 327: 1449-1451) 29 December 2003.[3]
  • 'The term 'heartsink' is an insult to patients' in response to Scott Pereira (Immunology BMJ Career Focus 2004; 329: 113-a-114-a).
  • 'Some key issues neglected in this paper' in response to Thomas and Smith ("Primary healthcare provision and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: a survey of patients' and General Practitioners' beliefs" BMC Family Practice 2005, 6:49 doi:10.1186/1471-2296-6-49) 22 August 2006.[12]
  • 'Problems in the Pace trial' in response to White et al ('Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy' BMC Neurology 2007, 7:6) 13 November 2007.[13]
  • 'Some problems with the London Criteria' in response to White et al ('Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy' BMC Neurology 2007, 7:6) 1 Oct 2008.[14] The information on these criteria in this article was later shown to be inaccurate. There were no real problems with the criteria, revised in 2009 and published, and the arguments were irrelevant as they were not used in the trial.
  • Response to Wessely et al ('Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome', PLoS ONE, 6 January 2010) 13 Jan 2010.[15]
  • "The 'validity' of patient needs in 'CFS'?" in response to Drachler et al ('The expressed needs of people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A systematic review' BMC Public Health 2009, 9:458) 1 February 2010.[16]
  • Stakeholder Submission to the American Psychiatric Association on the proposed DSM-5 Criteria made January 2011.

http://dxrevisionwatch.com/dsm-5-proposals/dsm-5-submissions-2011/2/

  • "Authors of our Own Misfortune? The Problems with Psychogenic Explanations for Physical Illnesses" (2012) Market Rasen, The Village Digital Press.[19]

Online presence[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Kennedy, Angela P (Sep 26, 2003), "The social myth of mind over matter", BMJ (response), 327 (654) 
  2. Kennedy, Angela P (Sep 28, 2003), "The Doctor must not close his or her mind to all possible factors in regard to treatment", BMJ (response), 327 (654) 
  3. Kennedy, Angela P (Dec 29, 2003), "Re: your own worst enemy", BMJ (response), 327: 1449-1451 
  4. Kennedy, Angela P (Fall 2004), "When Doctors say 'Psychosomatic', What do they Mean?" (PDF), Quest (Canadian National ME/FM Action Network) (66) 
  5. Kennedy, Angela P (May 28, 2004), "Some serious problems in Doctors' attitudes towards ME/CFS sufferers uncovered", BMJ (response), 328: 1354 
  6. Kennedy, Angela P (Jun 4, 2004), "Some worrying doctor's attitudes towards ME/CFS sufferers uncovered", BMJ (response), 328: 1354 
  7. Kennedy, Angela P (Jun 4, 2004), "Re: Medical Correctness", BMJ (response), 328: 1354 
  8. Kennedy, Angela P (Jun 8, 2004), "Re: Medical correctness and evidence based medicine", BMJ (response), 328: 1354 
  9. Kennedy, Angela P (Jun 8, 2004), "Re: Grey areas at the interface of psychiatry and medicine?", BMJ (response), 328: 1354 
  10. Kennedy, Angela P (Jun 16, 2004), "GPs are powerless without better models", BMJ (response), 328: 1354 
  11. Kennedy, Angela P (May 3, 2005), "Failure to consider the issue of differential diagnosis now inexcusable", BMJ (response), 330: 1012-1015 
  12. Kennedy, Angela P (Aug 22, 2006), "Some key issues neglected in this paper", BMC Family Practice (response), 6 (49) 
  13. Kennedy, Angela P (Nov 13, 2007), "Problems in the PACE Trial", BMC Neurology (response), 7 (6) 
  14. Kennedy, Angela P (Oct 1, 2008), "Some problems with the 'London Criteria'", BMC Neurology (response), 7 (6) 
  15. Kennedy, Angela P (Jan 13, 2010), "Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", PLoS One (response) 
  16. Kennedy, Angela P (Feb 1, 2010), "The 'validity' of patient needs in 'CFS'?", BMC Public Health (response), 9 (458) 
  17. Kennedy, Angela P (Feb 22, 2010), "What were the characteristics of the patient cohort?", Retrovirology (response), 7 (10) 
  18. Kennedy, Angela P (Jan 3, 2011), "Questions about 'CFS' and 'ICF' selection criteria of cohort", PLoS One (response) 
  19. Kennedy, Angela P (Sep 4, 2012), Authors of our own misfortune?: The problems with psychogenic explanations for physical illnesses (book), CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, ISBN 978-1-4792-5395-1 
  20. Kennedy, Angela P (Aug 2, 2012), "Cost-effectiveness is irrelevant when safety has not even been addressed in the PACE trial", PLoS One (response) 
  21. Kennedy, Angela P (Mar 21, 2013), "'SSD' reifies and rejiggles already unsound concepts of 'psychogenic illness'", BMJ (response), 346 (f1580) 
  22. Kennedy, Angela P (Nov 18, 2015), "Bad thoughts can't make you sick, that's just magical thinking", Aeon 
  23. Kennedy, Angela P (Feb 10, 2016), "Summary of my specific concerns about PACE with annotated bibliography", PACE Documents BlogSpot 

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

BMJ - The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

PACE trial - A controversial study which claimed that CBT and GET were effective in treating "CFS/ME", despite the fact that its own data did not support this conclusion. Its results and methodology were widely disputed by patients, scientists, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

randomized controlled trial (RCT) - A trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and a control or comparison group receiving a sham treatment, placebo, or comparison treatment.

pacing - The practice of staying within one's "energy envelope" by interspersing periods of activity with periods of rest. ME/CFS patients use pacing to avoid or reduce post-exertional malaise (PEM). Some patients use a heart rate monitor to help with pacing.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

American Psychiatric Association (APA) - The main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Not to be confused with the American Psychological Association (also APA).

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - A psychiatric reference book published by the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as "the psychiatrist's Bible". Although the most recent version (DSM-5) purports to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders, the editors of both previous versions of the manual have heavily criticized the current version due to the climate of secrecy that shrouded the development of the latest version. 69% of the people who worked on DSM-5 reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Allen Frances, who headed the development of the previous version, warned of dangerous unintended consequences such as new false 'epidemics'. The British Psychological Society criticized DSM-5 diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' that all rely on subjective judgements" and expressed a major concern that "clients and the general public are negatively affected by the continued and continuous medicalisation of their natural and normal responses to their experiences". A petition signed by over 13,000 mental health professionals stated that the lowered diagnostic thresholds in DSM-5, combined with entirely subjective criteria based on western social norms, would "lead to inappropriate medical treatment of vulnerable populations". The director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, pointed out that the diagnoses in DSM-5 had no scientific validity whatsoever. (Learn more: www.scientificamerican.com)

pacing - The practice of staying within one's "energy envelope" by interspersing periods of activity with periods of rest. ME/CFS patients use pacing to avoid or reduce post-exertional malaise (PEM). Some patients use a heart rate monitor to help with pacing.

somatic symptom disorder - A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.