Brucella

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Brucella is a bacteria that spreads from animals to humans most commonly through ingesting a contaminated food product or direct contact with an infected animal. Human to human contact is very rare.[1] The incidence of confirmed infection in humans in the US hovers just over 100 cases total.[2] The incidence in other parts of the world is higher.[3]

Characteristics[edit | edit source]

Brucella is:

  • Gram-negative - does not retain a crystal violet stain used in the differentiation process
  • coccobacilli - has a shape intermediate between cocci (spherical bacteria) and bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria)
  • non-spore-forming
  • non-motile
  • aerobic - grows in the presence of oxygen
  • zoonotic - spreads to humans from animals

Classification[edit | edit source]

There are six species of Brucella. Three can cause serious disease in humans: Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. One species, Brucella canis causes mild disease and the other two species have not affected humans.[4]

Brucellosis[edit | edit source]

The disease caused by a brucella infection is called brucellosis. It causes an acute febrile illness associated with rigors, sweats, malaise, anorexia, headache, pain in muscles, joint, and/or back, and fatigue. If untreated, it can potentially cause a debilitating chronic infection in humans with reoccurring fevers, arthritis, swelling of the testicle and scrotum area, swelling of the heart (endocarditis), neurologic symptoms (in up to 5% of all cases), chronic fatigue, depression, swelling of the liver and/or spleen.[5][6]

Risk for exposure[edit | edit source]

The people most at risk for acquiring a Brucella infection are people who[7]:

  • consume undercooked meat or unpasteurized milk products from an infected animal
  • slaughterhouse workers
  • meat-packing plant employees
  • veterinarians
  • hunters dressing an infected animal
  • laboratory workers who handle the bacteria
  • an infant breastfeeding from an infected mother

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Treatment is a combination of broad spectrum antibiotics.[8]

Lean more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "CDC - Home - Brucellosis". www.cdc.gov. Mar 8, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019. 
  2. "Brucellosis Surveillance | References and Resources | Brucellosis | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Oct 9, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2019. 
  3. Rubach, M. P., Halliday, J. E. B., Cleaveland, S., & Crump, J. A. (2013). Brucellosis in low-income and middle-income countries. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 26(5), 404–412. http://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283638104
  4. Alton GG, Forsyth JRL. Brucella. In: Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Chapter 28. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8572/
  5. Rubach, M. P., Halliday, J. E. B., Cleaveland, S., & Crump, J. A. (2013). Brucellosis in low-income and middle-income countries. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 26(5), 404–412. http://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283638104
  6. "Signs and Symptoms | Brucellosis | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Oct 9, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2019. 
  7. "Transmission | Brucellosis | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Mar 11, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019. 
  8. Michael J. Corbel. (1997). Brucellosis: an Overview. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 3, No. 2, pp 213-221. DOI: 10.3201/eid0302.970219
  9. Michael J. Corbel. (1997). Brucellosis: an Overview. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 3, No. 2, pp 213-221. DOI: 10.3201/eid0302.970219

Chronic fatigue (CF) - Persistent and abnormal fatigue is a symptom, not an illness. It may be caused by depression, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or many other illnesses. The term "chronic fatigue" should never be confused with the disease chronic fatigue syndrome.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.