Menstrual cycle

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Cycles and phases[edit]

Ovarian cycle[edit]

Follicular phase[edit]

Ovulation[edit]

Luteal phase[edit]

Uterine cycle[edit]

Menstruation[edit]

Proliferative phase[edit]

Secretory phase[edit]

Immune changes[edit]

Populations of Tregs increase peak just before ovulation and bottom out during the luteal phase, just before menstruation.

Progesterone and estrogen have anti-inflammatory effects.

Health effects in ME/CFS[edit]

Women who develop CFS report at higher rates a history of irregular cycles, amenorrhea, anovolutory cycles and sporadic bleeding between periods.[1]

Health effects in other conditions[edit]

The menstrual cycle can have effects on the timing and severity of symptoms of women suffering from many different conditions, including epilepsy, migraines, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome.[2]

Many women with epilepsy have patterns of seizure activity linked to their menstrual cycles, called catamenial epilepsy.[3][4][5][6] Seizure activity increases just before ovulation and just before menstruation.[7]

Abrupt estrogen withdrawal, such as what occurs just prior to menstruation, can trigger migraines.[8][9] Women with rheumatoid arthritis experienced reduced symptoms after ovulation, owing potentially to the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone and estrogen.[10]

In a retrospective study, 72% of women with fibromyalgia reported a worsening of symptoms just before their periods.[11]

Managing premenstrual symptoms[edit]

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are occasionally effective in women with menstrual migraine, as are beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ergotamine, antidepressants, estrogen and estradiol.[12]

Pathophysiology of menstrual symptoms[edit]

Estrogen may directly affect blood vessels by stimulating nitric oxide release. Women with a history of menstrual migraine had a heightened activation of the nitro oxide and L-arginine pathways, especially during the luteal phase.[13]


See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(98)00173-9/abstract
  2. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=208109
  3. http://www.seizure-journal.com/article/S1059-1311(07)00233-6/abstract
  4. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.20214/abstract;jsessionid=6C4279A672141BB3D4C3A2C30AD44751.f01t04
  5. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1997.tb01197.x/abstract
  6. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2006.00672.x/abstract
  7. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=208109
  8. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=202685
  9. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=208109
  10. http://www.amjmed.com/article/0002-9343(83)90789-1/abstract
  11. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03009749709065698
  12. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=208109
  13. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=202685


The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history