William Reeves

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William C. Reeves, MD, MS (27 March 1943 - 3 Aug 2012) was an epidemiologist and former CFS Research Chief of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention from 1992 to 2010. He was criticized for promoting psychological causal factors for ME/CFS,[1] as well as for his department misspending funds appropriated for ME/CFS.[2]

In 2010, he was removed from the CFS program and reassigned as Senior Advisor for Mental Health Surveillance in the Public Health Surveillance Program Office within the CDC.[3] He died at his home in Atlanta on Aug. 3, 2012 at the age of 69.[4]

Wichita clinical study[edit | edit source]

From December 2002 to July 2003 in Wichita, Kansas, USA, a 2-day in-hospital clinical assessment study was conducted by Reeves and his CDC department. It was named the Wichita Clinical Study. The complete data set is available on the CDC Wichita Clinical Study Data Access website. The study enrolled 227 people and classified them into five study groups, one with CFS patients as defined by the 1994 CDC Fukuda criteria case definition, one non-fatigued control group and three other groups reporting ongoing fatigue.[5] The main objective of the study was to characterize the physiologic status of subjects with CFS[6], and to apply the 1994 CFS criteria to standardized reproducible criteria.[7]

The conclusion of the Wichita Clinical Study published in 2005 stated: "The empirical definition includes all aspects of CFS specified in the 1994 case definition and identifies persons with CFS in a precise manner that can be readily reproduced by both investigators and clinicians."[7]

In 2006, Reeves spoke at The National Press Club as part of a Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Awareness Campaign. Using results from the Wichita Clinical Study, he stated: "When we completed the medical workups of people in Wichita to confirm that they had CFS, we found that only half of those with the illness had consulted a physician for the illness. We found that only 16 percent had been diagnosed and treated for CFS...We found that a quarter of the people with CFS are either unemployed or receiving disability...We’ve documented, as have others, that the level of functional impairment in people who suffer from CFS is comparable to multiple sclerosis, AIDS, end-stage renal failure, [or] chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The disability is equivalent to that of some well-known, very severe medical conditions.”[8]

Case definition[edit | edit source]

In 2005, the CDC published a paper outlining the Wichita Clinical Study which stated that the 1994 CDC case definition of CFS (called the empirical definition or the Fukuda criteria) was an accurate case definition. The study has garnered much criticism for not being specific enough to exclude patients which other illnesses. In particular, there is no mention of post-exertional malaise, instead they use the symptom "post-exertional fatigue."[9][10][7]Since the study was led by Reeves, the case definition is sometimes referred to as the Reeves criteria although it has no distinction from the 1994 CDC case definition of CFS.

Notable studies related to ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

News articles[edit | edit source]

Talks and interviews[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Dr. William C. Reeves, Who Sought Cause of Fatigue Syndrome, Dies at 69
  2. Joe, S., & Valerie, S. (n.d.). CDC Misled Congress on Spending, Records Show Agency Diverted Funding, Filed False Reports. Retrieved July 16, 2016 from http://www.wicfs-me.org/wi_cfs_-5.htm.
  3. http://www.topix.com/forum/atlanta/TAINT9O7K12CMJ864
  4. Grady, D. (2012, August). Dr. William C. Reeves, Who Sought Cause of Fatigue Syndrome, Dies at 69. The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/09/health/dr-william-c-reeves-who-sought-cause-of-fatigue-syndrome-dies-at-69.html?_r=0
  5. http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/programs/wichita-data-access/index.html
  6. http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/pdf/wichita-data-access/wichita-clinical-study-overview.pdf
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Reeves, W. C.; Wagner, D.; Nisenbaum, R.; Jones, J. F.; Gurbaxani, B.; Solomon, L.; Papanicolaou, D. A.; Unger, E. R.; Vernon, S. D.; Heim, C. (2005), "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A clinically empirical approach to its definition and study", BMC Medicine, 3 (19), doi:10.1186/1741-7015-3-19 
  8. http://www.cdc.gov/media/transcripts/t061103.htm
  9. http://me-pedia.org/wiki/Reeves_criteria#Criticism criticism
  10. http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/pdf/wichita-data-access/symptom-inventory-doc.pdf
  11. Boneva, Roumiana S.; Maloney, Elizabeth M.; Lin, Jin-Mann; Jones, James F.; Wieser, Friedrich; Nater, Urs M.; Heim, Christine M.; Reeves, William C. (2011), "Gynecological History in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Journal of Women's Health", Journal of Women’s Health, 20 (1): 21–28, doi:10.1089/jwh.2009.1900 
  12. Jones JF, Lin JM, Maloney EM, Boneva RS, Nater UM, Unger ER, Reeves WC. (2009). An evaluation of exclusionary medical/psychiatric conditions in the definition of chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Medicine, 7 57. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-57
  13. Majer M, Jones JF, Unger ER, Youngblood LS, Decker MJ, Gurbaxani B, Heim C, Reeves WC. (2007). Perception versus polysomnographic assessment of sleep in CFS and non-fatigued control subjects: results from a population-based study. BMC Neurology, 7:40
  14. Hickie, Ian; Davenport, Tracey; Wakefield, Denis; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Cameron, Barbara; Vernon, Suzanne D.; Reeves, William C.; Lloyd, Andrew (2006), "Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: Prospective cohort study", BMJ, 333 (7568): 575, doi:10.1136/bmj.38933.585764.AE 
  15. Reeves, W. C.; Heim, C.; Maloney, E. M.; Youngblood, L. S.; Unger, E. R.; Decker, M. J.; Jones, J. F.; Rye, D. B. (2006), "Sleep characteristics of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and non-fatigued controls: results from a population-based study", BMC Neurology, 6 (41), doi:10.1186/1471-2377-6-41 
  16. Capuron, Lucile; Welberg, Leonie; Heim, Christine; Wagner, Dieter; Solomon, Laura; Papanicolaou, Dimitris A; Craddock, R Cameron; Miller, Andrew H; Reeves, William C (2006), "Cognitive Dysfunction Relates to Subjective Report of Mental Fatigue in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Neuropsychopharmacology, 31: 1777–1784, doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301005 
  17. Vernon, SD; Whistler, T; Cameron, B; Hickie, IB; Reeves, WC; Lloyd, A (2006), "Preliminary evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with post-infective fatigue after acute infection with Epstein Barr Virus", BMC Infectious Diseases, 6 (15), doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-15, PMID 16448567 
  18. Wagner, Dieter; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Heim, Christine; Jones, James F.; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Reeves, William C. (2005), "Psychometric properties of the CDC Symptom Inventory for assessment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.", Population Health Metrics, 3 (8): 1, doi:10.1186/1478-7954-3-8 
  19. Nisenbaum, R; Reyes, M; Unger, ER; Reeves, W (Feb 2004), "Factor analysis of symptoms among subjects with unexplained chronic fatigue: what can we learn about chronic fatigue syndrome?", J Psychosom Res., 56 (2): 171-8, doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00039-4, PMID 15016574 
  20. Reeves, W. C.; Lloyd, A.; Vernon, S. D.; Klimas, N.; Jason, L. A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Evengard, B.; White, P. D.; Nisenbaum, R.; Unger, E.; The International Chronic Fatigue Research group members (2003), "Identification of ambiguities in the 1994 chronic fatigue syndrome research case definition and recommendations for resolution", BMC Health Services Research, 3 (25), doi:10.1186/1472-6963-3-25 
  21. Reyes, Michele; Dobbins, James G.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Subedar, Nazerah S.; Randall, Bonnie; Reeves, William C. (1999), "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Progression and Self-Defined Recovery: Evidence from the CDC Surveillance System", Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 5 (1): 17-27, doi:10.1300/J092v05n01_03 
  22. Dobbins, James G.; Randall, Bonnie; Reyes, Michele; Steete, Lea; Livens, Elizabeth A.; Reeves, William C. (1997), "The Prevalence of Chronic Fatiguing Illnesses Among Adolescents in the United States", Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 3 (2): 15-27, doi:10.1300/J092v03n02_03 
  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Remember_Me


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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history