Chronic Lyme disease
- 1 Symptoms
- 2 Blood and other laboratory tests
- 3 Treatment and management
- 4 Co-infections
- 5 Related diseases
- 6 Research
- 7 Lyme Disease vs Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- 8 References
Symptoms[edit | edit source]
The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary and usually appear in stages.
Early Signs and Symptoms
- Bull's eye rash (Not always present.)
- Flu-like symptoms
Later Signs and Symptoms
Less Common Signs and Symptoms
- Heart problems, such as irregular heartbeat.
- Eye inflammation
- Liver inflammation (hepatitis).
- Severe fatigue
Blood and other laboratory tests[edit | edit source]
United States[edit | edit source]
- Two-step Laboratory Testing Process (CDC: EIA/IFA and Western Blot)
- Types of Lyme Disease Tests (LymeDiseaseGuide.org)
- Laboratory tests that are not recommended (CDC)
United Kingdom[edit | edit source]
- BBC1 Lyme Disease Discussion - Some patients have waited up to 30 years for a correct diagnosis. National Health Service (NHS) services have only correctly identified the disease in a quarter of the patients. The blood tests are unreliable and often come back negative. The development of an accurate blood test is in need of research funding.
False positives[edit | edit source]
News media on unapproved tests[edit | edit source]
Treatment and management[edit | edit source]
- Approach Considerations
- Treatment of Early Lyme disease
- Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (Chronic lyme disease)
Co-infections[edit | edit source]
Herpesviruses[edit | edit source]
Lyme may cause reactivation of latent herpesviruses. At the same time, several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and HSV-2 may cause false positives on Lyme Disease tests.
Related diseases[edit | edit source]
Research[edit | edit source]
- 2016, Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties. ScienceDaily, Entomological Society of America
- 2016, Researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease, ScienceDaily, Mayo Clinic
- 2016, Gene Signature Could Lead To A New Way Of Diagnosing Lyme, UCSF News Center, Laura Kurtzman
- 2013, Quirky Lyme disease bacteria: Unlike most organisms, they don't need iron, but crave manganese, ScienceDaily, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Pathobiome paradigm[edit | edit source]
Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.
Lyme Disease vs Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[edit | edit source]
- 2011, Lyme Disease and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome are different diseases. Research is published on cerebrospinal fluid, and distinct differences were found.
- 2009, "The Department of Health remains concerned about the growing number of patients, particularly those suffering from chronic conditions such as myalgic encephalopathy (ME) or chronic fatigue syndrome, who receive a false diagnosis of Lyme disease from private laboratories offering unvalidated tests that lack the sensitivity and specificity to detect B. burgdorferi. A report of the Department’s investigation into the use of such tests in the diagnosis of Lyme disease is available at Report on Lyme Disease: Unorthodox and Unvalidated Laboratory Tests in the Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis and in Relation to Medically Unexplained Symptoms. Misinformation about Lyme disease is readily available to patients via the internet and can lead them to seek inappropriate diagnosis and treatment." 
- There are many historical outbreaks of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome that do not correlate with a tick-borne pathogen.
References[edit | edit source]
- CDC - Lyme Disease
- Mayo Clinic - Lyme Disease
- Bay Area Lyme Foundation - Does Everyone Get the Telltale Bullseye Rash?
- MedicineNet.com Picture of Lyme Disease (Erythema-Migrans)
- BBC1 Lyme Disease 27.02.2016 - YouTube
- Feder, HM Jr; Gerber, MA; Luger, SW; Ryan, RW (Dec 1991), "False-positive serologic tests for Lyme disease after varicella infection", N Engl J Med, 325 (26): 1886-7, PMID 1961232
- Woelfle, J; Wilske, B; Haverkamp, F; Bialek, R (Nov 1998), "False-positive serological tests for Lyme disease in facial palsy and varicella zoster meningo-encephalitis", Eur J Pediatr, 157 (1): 953-4, PMID 9835449
- Goossens, HA; Nohlmans, MK; van den Bogaard, AE (May 1999), "Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis", Infection, 27 (3): 231, PMID 10378140
- Strasfeld, L; Romanzi, L; Seder, RH; Berardi, VP (2005), "False-Positive Serological Test Results for Lyme Disease in a Patient with Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2", Clin Infect Dis, 41 (12): 1826-1827, doi:10.1086/498319, PMID 16288417
- Lyme Disease Treatment & Management - Medscape - Approach Considerations
- Lyme Disease Treatment & Management - Medscape - Treatment of Early Lyme Disease
- Lyme Disease Treatment & Management - Medscape - Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome
- Centers for Disease Control & Prevention - Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome
- Vayssier-Taussat, M; Kazimirova, M; Hubalek, Z; Hornok, S; Farkas, R; Cosson, JF; Bonnet, S; Vourch, G; Gasqui, P; Mihalca, AD; Plantard, O; Silaghi, C; Cutler, S; Rizzlo, A (19 Nov 2015), "Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm", Future Microbiol, 10 (12): 2033-43, doi:10.2217/fmb.15.114, PMID 26610021
- Schutzer, SE; Angel, TE; Liu, T; Schepmoes, AA; Clauss, TR; Adkins, JN; Camp, DG; Holland, BK; Bergquist, J; Coyle, PK; Smith, RD; Fallon, BA; Natelson, BH (23 Feb 2011), "Distinct Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes Differentiate Post-Treatment Lyme Disease from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", PLoS One, 6 (2): e17287, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017287, PMID 21383843
- Testing for Lyme Disease - Pg. 4 - CMO Update - 2009