William A. Carter, MD, is the inventor of Ampligen, short for “AMPLIfied GENetic activity,” a drug being tested for use in the treatment of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Dr. Carter was a researcher at John Hopkins University and Hahnemann University in the 1970's, where he was able to modify a potential cancer drug to reduce its toxicity, thus creating Ampligen.  Dr. Carter obtained the license for Ampligen from John Hopkins University and affiliated with the small company, Hemispherx, now called Hemispherx Biopharma in 1978 to manufacture it.
Once the long-time CEO and Chairman of the Board of Directors for Hemispherx Biopharma, he was terminated from his position in January 2016 as the result of a "strong financial austerity plan."
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 1994, A controlled clinical trial with a specifically configured RNA drug, poly(I).poly(C12U), in chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2007, Cross-Protection against H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection Is Afforded by Intranasal Inoculation with Seasonal Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine
- 2012, A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial of the TLR-3 agonist rintatolimod in severe cases of chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2015, Low NK Cell Activity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Relationship to Symptom Severity
- 2015, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): Characteristics of Responders to Rintatolimod.
References[edit | edit source]
- Strayer, DR; Carter, WA; Brodsky, I; Cheney, P; Peterson, D; Salvato, P; Thompson, C; Loveless, M; Shapiro, DE; Elsasser, W (1994), "A controlled clinical trial with a specifically configured RNA drug, poly(I).poly(C12U), in chronic fatigue syndrome", Clinical Infectious Diseases, 18 (Suppl 1): S88-95, PMID 8148460
- Takeshi Ichinohe, Shin-ichi Tamura, Akira Kawaguchi, Ai Ninomiya, Masaki Imai, Shigeyuki Itamura, Takato Odagiri, Masato Tashiro, Hidehiro Takahashi, Hirofumi Sawa, William M. Mitchell, David R. Strayer, William A. Carter, Joe Chiba, Takeshi Kurata, Tetsutaro Sata and Hideki Hasegawa. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 196, No. 9 (Nov. 1, 2007), pp. 1313-1320. Url: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30086851
- Strayer, DR; Carter, WA; Stouch, BC; Stevens, SR; Bateman, L; Cimoch, PJ; Lapp, CW; Peterson, DL; CFS AMP-516 Study Group; Mitchell, WM (2012), "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial of the TLR-3 agonist rintatolimod in severe cases of chronic fatigue syndrome.", PLoS One, 7 (3): e31334, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031334, PMID 22431963
- Strayer, David; Scott, Victoria; Carter, William (July 29, 2015), "Low NK Cell Activity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Relationship to Symptom Severity", Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology: 1–9, doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000348, ISSN 2155-9899
- Strayer, David R; Stouch, Bruce C; Stevens, Staci R.; Bateman, Lucinda; Lapp, Charles W; Peterson, Daniel L; Carter, William A; Mitchell, William M (August 8, 2015), "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): Characteristics of Responders to Rintatolimod" (PDF), Journal of Drug Research and Development, 1 (1), doi:10.16966/2470-1009.103
double blinded trial A clinical trial is double blinded if neither the participants nor the researchers know which treatment group they are allocated to until after the results are interpreted. This reduces bias. (Learn more: www.nottingham.ac.uk)
agonist A chemical that binds to the receptor and stimulates it's function, e.g., morphine is an opioid agonist that binds to the opioid receptor, reducing pain. The opposite of an antagonist.
myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.