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Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses. Serum tryptase is one of tests used to aid in the diagnosis of mast cell activation syndrome,[1] anaphylaxis and mastocystosis.

Tryptase released by mast cells may be involved in cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis.[2]

Tryptase activates metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1).[3] A mouse model of viral myocarditis found elevated tryptase and MMPs.[4] Other infections, including Q fever,[5] have been associated with elevated tryptase levels.

A genetics study found increased copy numbers of the TPSAB1 gene, which encodes alpha tryptase, in a group of families with dysautonomia/POTS, Ehlers-Danlos Sydnrome and mast cell activation syndrome.[6]

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  1. Akin, Cem (2010). "Mast Cell Activation Syndrome: Proposed Diagnostic Criteria". J Allergy and Clinical Immuno.
  2. Wang, Qian; Lepus, Christin M; Raghu, Harini; Reber, Laurent L; Tsai, Mindy M; Wong, Heidi H; von Kaeppler, Ericka; Lingampalli, Nithya; Bloom, Michelle S (May 14, 2019). Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu (eds.). "IgE-mediated mast cell activation promotes inflammation and cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis". eLife. 8: e39905. doi:10.7554/eLife.39905. ISSN 2050-084X.
  3. Naveed, Shamsa; Jackson, David J.; Clements, Debbie; Reynolds, Catherine; Shaw, Dominick; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Johnson, Simon R. (May 1, 2016). "Mast Cell Tryptase Activates Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Causing Matrix Remodelling, Airway Smooth Muscle Growth and Airway Obstruction During Asthma Exacerbations". American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts. American Thoracic Society. pp. A6174–A6174. doi:10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2016.193.1_meetingabstracts.a6174.
  4. Matsumori, Akira; Sasayama, Shigetake; Kinoshita, Makoto; Nakano, Atsushi; Ono, Koh; Yamaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Kanjo; Higuchi, Kazuhiro; Hara, Masatake (2003). "Gene Expression of Cardiac Mast Cell Chymase and Tryptase in a Murine Model of Heart Failure Caused by Viral Myocarditis". Circulation Journal. 67 (10): 881–884. doi:10.1253/circj.67.881. ISSN 1346-9843.
  5. Mezouar, Soraya; Morel, Victor; Leveille, Laury; Resseguier, Noémie; Chartier, Céline; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis; Vitte, Joana (June 1, 2019). "Progenitor mast cells and tryptase in Q fever". Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 64: 159–162. doi:10.1016/j.cimid.2019.03.011. ISSN 0147-9571.
  6. Milner, Joshua D.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Heller, Theo; Caughey, George H.; Stone, Kelly D.; Hohman, Robert J.; Rothenberg, Marc E. (December 2016). "Elevated basal serum tryptase identifies a multisystem disorder associated with increased TPSAB1 copy number". Nature Genetics. 48 (12): 1564–1569. doi:10.1038/ng.3696. ISSN 1546-1718.

enzyme a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

serum The clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after clotting factors have been removed by clot formation. (Blood plasma is simply blood that has had its blood cells removed.)

anaphylaxis "an often severe and sometimes fatal systemic reaction in a susceptible individual upon exposure to a specific antigen (such as wasp venom or penicillin) after previous sensitization". Typically causes breathing problems, fainting or loss of consciousness, fast heartbeat, itching, and hives. (Learn more:

cartilage firm, whitish, flexible connective tissue found in various forms in the larynx and respiratory tract, in structures such as the external ear, and in the articulating surfaces of joints

mouse model The use of special strains of mice to study a human disease or condition, and how to prevent and treat it

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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.