T helper cell

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T helper (Th) cells play an important role in the adaptive immune system.

Th1[edit | edit source]

Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity against viruses and intracellular bacteria. They are triggered by IL-12, IL-2 and their effector cytokine is IFN-γ. The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells.

Autoimmune diseases characterized by a Th1 immune profile include rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Type 1 diabetes, Sjögren's syndrome and Crohn's disease.[1]

Th2[edit | edit source]

Th1 cells are involved in humoral immunity against extracellular parasites, bacteria, toxins and allergens. They are triggered by IL-4 and their effector cytokines are IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 and IL-13. The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells.

Autoimmune diseases characterized by a Th1 immune profile include Lupus, Scleroderma, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Asthma.[2] Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterized by a Th2 cytokine profile.[3][4]

Modulating the Th1/Th2 balance[edit | edit source]

There are many compounds that have shown to suppress a Th2-mediated immune response. These include ginger[5], reishi[6], licorice[7] and astragalus[8]. These have not been tested for efficacy in ME or CFS patients.

Histamine[9] and mold[10] increase a Th2 response.

References[edit | edit source]

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The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history