T helper cell

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T helper (Th) cells play an important role in the adaptive immune system.

Th1[edit]

Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity against viruses and intracellular bacteria. They are triggered by IL-12, IL-2 and their effector cytokine is IFN-γ. The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells.

Autoimmune diseases characterized by a Th1 immune profile include rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Type 1 diabetes, Sjögren's syndrome and Crohn's disease.[1]

Th2[edit]

Th1 cells are involved in humoral immunity against extracellular parasites, bacteria, toxins and allergens. They are triggered by IL-4 and their effector cytokines are IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 and IL-13. The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells.

Autoimmune diseases characterized by a Th1 immune profile include Lupus, Scleroderma, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Asthma.[2] Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterized by a Th2 cytokine profile.[3][4]

Modulating the Th1/Th2 balance[edit]

There are many compounds that have shown to suppress a Th2-mediated immune response. These include ginger[5], reishi[6], licorice[7] and astragalus[8]. These have not been tested for efficacy in ME or CFS patients.

Histamine[9] and mold[10] increase a Th2 response.

References[edit]

<references>
  1. Reference needed
  2. Reference needed
  3. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02354.x/asset/j.1365-2249.2004.02354.x.pdf?v=1&t=ih2sb89a&s=28e6da52c0fed6b540d4b6ca672ab2cf280fe372/
  4. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05824.x/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18692598
  6. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2172-12-31.pdf
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261828
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17361521
  9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12810348
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20194814


The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history