Ribonuclease L or RNase L is a latent enzyme that cleaves the components of RNA. Its increased production is activated by interferon which, in turn, causes the destruction of all RNA within the cell, both cellular and viral. It is a key component of the intracellular immune response to viral pathogens.
RNase L is present in small quantities during the normal cell cycle. When interferon binds to receptors on the cell membrane, it triggers the production of more RNase L along with 2'-5' Oligodenylate Synthetase (OAS). OAS converts ATP to pyrophosphate and 2'-5'linked oligoadenylates. The 2-5 A molecules bind to RNase L and activates it. The activated RNaseL destroys all cellular and viral RNA, which triggers autophagy and programmed cell death.
Several abnormalities of the 2-5A/RNaseL pathways have been documented in chronic fatigue syndrome patients and have been suggested a possible diagnostic biomarker. Studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells have found that the RNase L and 2-5 A pathways are upregulated. , with abnormally high levels of the active form of 2-5 A.  RNase L proteins of the molecular weights 80, 42 and 37 kDa have also been found.
RNaseL activity and concentrations of bioactive 2-5 A are correlated with physical function.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2001, G-Actin Cleavage Parallels 2-5A-Dependent RNase L Cleavage in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells—Relevance to a Possible Serum-Based Screening Test for Dysregulations in the 2-5A Pathway (Abstract)
- 2001, Interactions Between Rnase L Ankyrin-Like Domain and ABC Transporters as a Possible Origin for Pain, Ion Transport, CNS and Immune Disorders of Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (Abstract)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Suhadolnik RJ, Reichenbach NL, Hitzges P, Sobol RW, Peterson DL, Henry B, Ablashi DV, Müller WE, Schröder HC, Carter WA, et al. Upregulation of the 2-5A synthetase/RNase L antiviral pathway associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jan;18 Suppl 1:S96-104. PMID: 8148461
- Suhadolnik RJ, Peterson DL, O'Brien K, Cheney PR, Herst CV, Reichenbach NL, Kon N, Horvath SE, Iacono KT, Adelson ME, et al. Biochemical evidence for a novel low molecular weight 2-5A-dependent RNase L in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1997 Jul;17(7):377-85. doi:10.1089/jir.1997.17.377 PMID: 9243369
- Snell CR, Vanness JM, Strayer DR, Stevens SR. Physical performance and prediction of 2-5A synthetase/RNase L antiviral pathway activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. In Vivo. 2002 Mar-Apr;16(2):107-9. PMID: 12073768
- Simon Roelens, C. Vincent Herst, Anne D'Haese, Karen De Smet, Marc Frémont, Kenny De Meirleir & Patrick Englebienne. (2001). G-Actin Cleavage Parallels 2-5A-Dependent RNase L Cleavage in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells—Relevance to a Possible Serum-Based Screening Test for Dysregulations in the 2-5A Pathway. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 8, Iss. 3-4, pp. 63-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J092v08n03_07
- Patrick Englebienne, C. Vincent Herst, Karen De Smet, Anne D'Haese & Kenny De Meirleir. (2001). Interactions Between Rnase L Ankyrin-Like Domain and ABC Transporters as a Possible Origin for Pain, Ion Transport, CNS and Immune Disorders of Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 8, Iss. 3-4, pp. 83-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J092v08n03_08