Quercetin is one of many flavonoids found in plant pigments, being orange to orange-yellow in color. It is the principal source flavonoid in human nutrition and is commonly used in food processing. Quercetin is found in high concentrations in carob, dill, red onions, buckwheat and kale.
Other names include: Citrus bioflavonoid, Sophoretin; Meletin; Quercetine; Xanthaurine; Quercetol; Quercitin; Quertine; Flavin.
Quercetin affects immunity and inflammation by acting mainly on leukocytes and targeting many intracellular signaling kinases and phosphatases, enzymes and membrane proteins often crucial for cellular specific function.
Quercetin supplements are used for prevention and treatment of cancer. It is promoted for atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, heart disease and circulatory problems, too. People with diabetes, hay fever, cataracts, peptic ulcer, schizophrenia, inflammatory conditions (asthma, gout), chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic prostate infection use it. Quercetin is also taken by athletes to increase endurance and improve performance.
Quercetin is a potent anti-oxidant. Most of the information on flavonoids concerns quercetin because with only sight changes to the backbone of flavones and subtle cell behavior mechanisms and responsiveness, flavoinoids can be modulating, biphasic and exert regulatory action on immunity and inflammation. Only a few flavones and flavonols have been assayed mainly due to chemical similarity to quercetin.
The US FDA has issued warning letters to manufacturers of supplements containing quercetin to withdraw health benefit claims and emphasize that quercetin is not a defined nutrient nor an antioxidant, cannot be assigned a dietary content level and is not regulated as a drug to treat any human disease. The European Food Safety Authority evaluated possible health claims associated with consumption of quercetin, and found that no cause-and-effect relationship established for any physiological effect in human health or diseases.
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Quercetin's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are thought to be important in resolving the pathophysiology of ME/CFS. Additionally, a 2009 study by J. Mark Davis,et al., showed markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle and brain, and on endurance exercise tolerance after a week of quercetin in their food.
- PVP - Quercetin dihydrate
- Wikipedia - Quercetin
- Chirumbolo, Salvatore (September 2010), "The role of quercetin, flavonols and flavones in modulating inflammatory cell function", Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets, 9 (4): 263–285, ISSN 2212-4055, PMID 20887269
- Quercetin dihydrate safety sheet on http://www.pvp.com.br (English)
- WebMD - Vitamins and Supplements - Quercetin
- Balavoine, G. G.; Geletii, Y. V. (1999), "Peroxynitrite scavenging by different antioxidants. Part I: convenient assay", Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry, 3 (1): 40–54, ISSN 1089-8603, PMID 10355895, doi:10.1006/niox.1999.0206
- FDA's Electronic Reading Room - Warning Letters
- European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) NDA Panel (Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) (8 April 2011).
- Davis, J. Mark; Murphy, E. Angela; Carmichael, Martin D.; Davis, Ben (2009-04-01), "Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance", American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 296 (4): –1071–R1077, ISSN 0363-6119, PMID 19211721, doi:10.1152/ajpregu.90925.2008, retrieved 2016-11-09