Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome aka POTS aka postural tachycardia syndrome is a condition in which a change from the supine position (lying horizontally) to an upright position causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate, called tachycardia. Other symptoms of an orthostatic nature — occurring in response to upright posture — may accompany the tachycardia. It is a form of orthostatic intolerance (OI). Accompanying the heart rate acceleration, other symptoms, such as headaches, fatigue, sweating, nausea, fainting and dizziness may occur. POTS is associated with an increase in heart rate from the lying to upright position of greater than 30 beats per minute, or a heart rate of greater than 120 beats per minute within 10 minutes of standing.
Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]
The following symptoms are common in POTS:
- Dizziness/ lightheadedness
- Headaches and migraines
- Cognitive impairment / brain fog
- Sleep abnormalities
- Neuropathic pain
- Blood pooling in the extremities
- Sensory sensitivity
- Abdominal pain, gastroparesis, or rapid gastric emptying
Testing[edit | edit source]
Assessing orthostatic blood pressure can be done in a physician's office by measuring the patient's blood pressure while lying down, sitting, and standing at standardized time increments. Dr. Lucinda Bateman uses a modified orthostatic blood pressure assessment called the NASA 10-minute Lean Test, a variant of a test used by NASA researchers to test for orthostatic intolerance following space flight. The NASA 10-minute Lean Test is less taxing on the patient and can be done in any physician's office. Instructions are available for printout for both healthcare providers and patients.
Treatment[edit | edit source]
A 2012 study Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review concluded:
- "The pathophysiology of POTS is complex and the result of a number of separate mechanisms producing a common pattern of symptoms. The large number of clinical manifestations that characterize this disorder and the wide range of medications available, plus the clear evidence that certain medications and treatment strategies work in some, but not all POTS patients, demonstrates that POTS is a range of disorders requiring comprehensive investigation and characterisation to guide selection of the most appropriate treatment. The recent consensus statement will help to direct further research into the underlying conditions that lead to POTS."
The following treatments were identified:
- Exercise (contraindicated in patients with co-morbid myalgic encephalomyelitis)
- Sodium chloride 0.9% (Normal saline)
- Pyridostigmine bromide
- Others such as methyldopa and antidepressants
Related conditions[edit | edit source]
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Estimates on the prevalence of POTS among ME/CFS patients varies widely. POTS can be a co-morbid condition in ME/CFS patients. In a 2008 study done in the UK by the Northern CFS/ME Clinical Network, using the Fukuda criteria, 27% of the study population had POTS compared with 9% in the control population.
A 2011 study, by the Vanderbilt Autonomic Dysfunction Center (Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, U.S.A.), reported that 64% of the POTS population in the study also met the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome.
The proposed SEID criteria requires that either orthostatic intolerance (of which POTS is one type) or cognitive dysfunction for a diagnosis. However, the diagnosis of POTS alone does not automatically support a ME/CFS diagnosis and cannot be used as a diagnostic biomarker to determine ME/CFS. POTS can occur independent from ME/CFS, and, likewise, ME/CFS can occur without the symptomatology of POTS.
A September 2016 study in the Netherlands by Roerink, et al, found that patients with CFS who fulfilled the SEID criteria did not have a prevalence of POTS different from that in the overall CFS population. In adults with CFS, the prevalence of POTS was low, between 6% - 18% (depending on age), was not different from the rate in non-CFS fatigued patients and was not related to disease severity or treatment outcome.
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome[edit | edit source]
Studies[edit | edit source]
- 2018, Managing fatigue in postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS): The Newcastle approach (Abstract)
- 2016, Is Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia a Useful Diagnostic Marker in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients?(Abstract)
- 2016, Postural orthostatic tachycardia is not a useful diagnostic marker for chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2014, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia With Chronic Fatigue After HPV Vaccination as Part of the “Autoimmune/Auto-inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants”
- 2014, Comorbidity of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome in an Australian cohort
- 2013, What is brain fog? An evaluation of the symptom in postural tachycardia syndrome
- 2012, Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review
- 2008, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- POTS UK website
- September 2010, "Mangaging Orthostatic Intolerance", by Dr Peter Rowe
- Recognizing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
- 2016, The Exercise Intolerance in POTS, ME/CFS and Fibromyalgia Explained?
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Neuronal and hormonal perturbations in postural tachycardia syndrome
- Standing Up to POTS (July 9, 2018). "Symptoms of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)". Standing Up to POTS.
- Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review - Journal of Geriatric Cardiology - NCBI
- POTS in ME/CFS - youtube
- [Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J. (2008). Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. QJM, 101(12):961-5. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcn123. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18805903]
- Okamoto, L. E., Raj, S. R., Peltier, A., Gamboa, A., Shibao, C., Diedrich, A., . . . Biaggioni, I. (2011). Neurohumoral and haemodynamic profile in postural tachycardia and chronic fatigue syndromes. Clinical Science, 122(4), 183-192. doi:10.1042/CS20110200 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203411/
- Roerink, M. E.; Lenders, J. W.; Schmits, I. C.; Pistorius, A. M.; Smit, J. W.; Knoop, H.; van der Meer, J. W. M. (2016), "Postural orthostatic tachycardia is not a useful diagnostic marker for chronic fatigue syndrome", Journal of Internal Medicine, doi:10.1111/joim.12564, PMID 27696568
- Strassheim, V; Welford, J; Ballantine, R; Newton, JL (2018), "Managing fatigue in postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS): The Newcastle approach.", Autonomic Neuroscience, doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2018.02.003
- Reynolds, GK; Lewis, Donald P; Richardson, AM; Lidbury, Brett A (April 2014), "Comorbidity of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome in an Australian cohort", Journal of Internal Medicine, Volume 275, Issue 4: 409–417, doi:10.1111/joim.12161, PMID 24206536
- Ross, A. J.; Medow, M. S.; Rowe, P. C.; Stewart, J. M. (2013), "What is brain fog? An evaluation of the symptom in postural tachycardia syndrome.", Clinical Autonomic Research : Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society, 23 (6): 305–311, doi:10.1007/s10286-013-0212-z
- Hoad, A.; Spickett, Gavin; Elliott, J.; Newton, Julia (2008), "Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome.", QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians, 101 (12): 961-5, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcn123, PMID 18805903