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Nicotinamide (niacinamide) is a form of vitamin B3 (niacin). Nicotinamide, (/ˌnɪkəˈtɪnəmaɪd/) also known as niacinamide, NAA, and nicotinic amide, is the amide of nicotinic acid (niacin). Nicotinamide is a water-soluble B vitamin.
Nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinamide in vivo, and, though the two are identical in their vitamin functions, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological and toxic effects as niacin, which occurs incidental to niacin's conversion. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing, although it may be toxic to the liver at doses exceeding 3g/day in adults. In cells, niacin is incorporated into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), although the pathways for nicotinic acid amide and nicotinic acid are very similar. NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions. Commercial production of niacin and niacinamide (several thousand tons annually) is by hydrolysis or aminolysis of 3-cyanopyridine (nicotinonitrile).
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one known cause of nicotinamide deficiency.
Purpose[edit | edit source]
Sources[edit | edit source]
Evidence[edit | edit source]
- 2016, Treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) rejuvenates stem cells, allowing better regeneration processes in aged mice. Beneficial for mitochondria, muscle stem cells, neural stem cells, melanocyte stem cells, and increased lifespan.
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
It is used in the ME/CFS treatment regime of patient Katrina Voss:
- My antiretroviral Regime for Antiretroviral Treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (Deutsch: #Arztanfragen - Mein Therapieregime für die antiretrovirale Behandlung bei Myalgischer Enzephalomyelitis)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans
- Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection.
- Study sees benefits of vitamin B3 against hospital germs (Deutsch: Studie sieht Nutzen von Vitamin B3 gegen Krankenhauskeime)
- Zhang, Hongbo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wu, Yibo; et al. (Apr 28, 2016), "NAD+ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice", Science: –2693, doi:10.1126/science.aaf2693, PMID 27127236, lay summary
mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.