From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Molly M. Brown, PhD in Psychology, is an Assistant Professor, Clinical-Community Psychology, College of Science and Health, De Paul University, Chicago, Illinois.
- 2017, Dr. Brown was one of the signers of An open letter to Psychological Medicine about “recovery” and the PACE trial
- 2013, Energy conservation/envelope theory interventions. Full Text
- 2012, Understanding long-term outcomes of chronic fatigue syndrome.
Abstract: In a follow-up study "of the 25 participants diagnosed with CFS 25 years ago, 5 self-reported that they maintained a diagnosis of CFS, while 20 reported no longer having a CFS diagnosis...Those who remitted from CFS showed significantly more impairment on 21 out of 23 outcomes compared with controls,...suggest[ing] that over time many individuals will not maintain a CFS diagnosis but will not return to their premorbid level of functioning.
- 2012, Contrasting case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis
- 2012, Factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2010, Possible Genetic Dysregulation in Pediatric CFS (FULL TEXT)
Abstract: Hypocortisolism is a frequent finding in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and could play an explanatory role in the development of illness symptomatology. The etiologic mechanism behind this finding could be genetic variance in glucocorticoid receptor expression (GR) or increased resistance to the effects of glucocorticoids. Several investigators believe that allelic variance in a GR (NR3C1) mediates the expression of chronic fatigue possibly through influence on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function . In addition, several immunologic variables are associated with CFS. The nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) pathway is heavily involved in cellular transcription and regulation and has been shown to be associated with the development of CFS. The NFkB pathway is directly regulated by and influences the presence of GR . Our study focused on assessing whether such inflammatory transcription is occurring during adolescent years. Findings indicated decreased expression of NFKB1, NFKB2, and NR3C1. A decrease in the expression of these genes may have effects on immune cell function and cytokine production that could explain immunologic findings seen in individuals with CFS.
- 2009, The relationship of Fennell phases to symptoms among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome
Abstract: The Fennell Phase Inventory (FPI) is an instrument designed to measure phases of the illnesses known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The current study explored how the FPI was related to physical and psychological functioning as well as coping style. Based on FPI scores, 111 adults with ME/CFS were placed in one of three groups: crisis, stabilization, or resolution. Results showed that the crisis group demonstrated significantly worse functioning than at least one other group for depression, quality of life, mental functioning, anxiety, and self-efficacy; and utilized less adaptive coping styles. These results indicate that patients with ME/CFS who are in the crisis phase tend to experience more severe psychological and physical symptoms and utilize poorer coping strategies. Those in the resolution phase maintain the most adaptive coping strategies. Implications for these findings are discussed.
- 2009, Activity Logs as a Measure of Daily Activity Among Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. (Full text)
- 2008, The associations between basal salivary cortisol levels and illness symptomatology in chronic fatigue syndrome. (Full text)
Abstract: Hypocortisolism has been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with the significance of this finding to disease etiology unclear. This study examined cortisol levels and their relationships with symptoms in a group of 108 individuals with CFS. CFS symptoms examined included fatigue, pain, sleep difficulties, neurocognitive functioning, and psychiatric status. Alterations in cortisol levels were examined by calculation of mean daily cortisol, while temporal variation in cortisol function was examined by means of a regression slope. Additionally, deviation from expected cortisol diurnal pattern was determined via clinical judgment. Results indicated that fatigue and pain were associated with salivary cortisol levels. In particular, variance from the expected pattern of cortisol was associated with increased levels of fatigue. The implications of these findings are discussed.
- 2007, Baseline Cortisol Levels Predict Treatment Outcomes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Nonpharmacologic Clinical Trial
Abstract - Objective: Understanding how nonpharmacologic interventions differentially affect the subgroups of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) might provide insights into the pathophysiology of this illness. In this exploratory study, baseline measures of normal versus abnormal cortisol were compared on a variety of immune markers and other self-report measures. Normal versus abnormal cortisol ratings were used as predictors in a nurse-delivered nonpharmacologic intervention. Methods: Participants diagnosed with CFS were assigned to 6-month nonpharmacologic interventions. Individuals were classified as having abnormal or normal cortisol levels on the basis of scores over the five testing times. Cortisol levels were considered abnormal if they continued to rise, were flat, or were at abnormally low over time. Results: Across interventions, those with abnormal cortisol at the baseline appeared not to improve over time, whereas those with normal baseline cortisol evidenced improvements on a number of immunologic and self-report measures. Conclusion: It appears that, in subgroups of individuals with CFS, baseline cortisol markers are associated with outcome trajectories for nonpharmacologic treatment trials. The implications of these findings are discussed.
- 2007, Functioning in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome: increased impairment with co-occurring multiple chemical sensitivity and fibromyalgia
Abstract - Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), and fibromyalgia (FM) commonly co-occur. Some propose that CFS, MCS, and FM are manifestations of the same illness based on high rates of co-occurrence and overlapping diagnostic criteria. This study seeks to differentiate these diagnoses by comparing individuals with one or more illness on functioning, psychiatric comorbidity, coping style, and in vivo physical measures. Methods: Participants included 114 men and women who met criteria for CFS. FM was diagnosed during a physical examination, and MCS was assessed using a questionnaire. Participants were divided into four groups: CFS alone, CFS-MCS, CFS-FM, and CFS-MCS-FM. Self-report measures, a psychiatric interview, and in vivo physical measures were given. Results: 43.9% met criteria for CFS alone, 23.7% met criteria for CFS-MCS, 15.8% met criteria for CFS-FM, and 16.7% met criteria for CFS-MCS-FM. The CFS-MCS-FM group was more disabled than the CFS alone group on measures of physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain. In vivo measures did not differ, but the CFS-MCS-FM group rated exertion higher than the CFS alone group. Conclusion: Individuals with CFS alone were the highest functioning group across several domains, such as disability, depression, and severity of symptoms. Participants with three diagnoses experienced the greatest amount of disability. While substantial co-occurrence of these illnesses was found, this study provides evidence that having more than one illness exacerbates one's disability beyond CFS alone.
Talks and interviews
- Jason, LA; Brown, M; Brown, A; Evans, M; Flores, S; Grant-Holler, E; Sunnquist, M (2013), "Energy conservation/envelope theory interventions", Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior, 1 (1-2): 27-42, doi:10.1080/21641846.2012.733602
- Brown MM, Bell DS, Jason LA, Christos C, Bell DE. (2012). Understanding long-term outcomes of chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(9):1028-35. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21880. Epub 2012 Jun 29. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22753044
- Jason, Leonard A.; Brown, Abigail; Clyne, Erin; Bartgis, Lindsey; Evans, Meredyth; Brown, Molly (September 2012), "Contrasting case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis", Evaluation & the Health Professions, 35 (3): 280–304, ISSN 1552-3918, PMID 22158691, doi:10.1177/0163278711424281
- Brown, M., Kaplan, C., & Jason, L. (2012). Factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Health Psychology, 17, 799-808. doi: 10.1177/1359105311424470
- Jason, L., Sorenson, M., Porter, N., Brown, M., Lerch, A., Van der Eb, C. & Mikovits, J. (2010). Possible Genetic Dysregulation in Pediatric CFS. Psychology, 1, 247-251. doi: 10.4236/psych.2010.14033.
- Reynolds, Nadia L; Brown, Molly M; Jason, LA (2009), "The relationship of Fennell phases to symptoms among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome", Evaluation & the Health Professions, 32 (3): 264-80, PMID 19696083, doi:10.1177/0163278709338558
- Jason, L.A.; Timpo, P.; Porter, N.; Herrington, J.; Brown, M.; Torres-Harding, S.; Friedberg, F. (2009), "Activity logs as a measure of daily activity among patients with CFS.", Journal of Mental Health, 18 (6): 549-556, PMID 24222721, doi:10.3109/09638230903191249
- Torres-Harding, Susan; Sorenson, Matthew; Jason, Leonard; Maher, Kevin; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Nadia; Brown, Molly (2008), "The associations between basal salivary cortisol and illness symptomatology in chronic fatigue syndrome", Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 2008 (13): 157-180, PMID 19701493
- Jason, Leonard A.; Torres-Harding, Susan; Maher, Kevin; Reynolds, Nadia; Brown, Molly; Sorenson, Matthew; Donalek, Julie; Corradi, Karina; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Lu, Tony (2007), "Baseline Cortisol Levels Predict Treatment Outcomes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Nonpharmacologic Clinical Trial", Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 14 (4): 39-59, doi:10.3109/10573320802092039
- Brown, MM; Jason, LA (2007), "Functioning in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome: increased impairment with co-occurring multiple chemical sensitivity and fibromyalgia", Dynamic Medicine, 6 (6), PMID 17540028, doi:10.1186/1476-5918-6-6