Menstrual cycle

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
(Redirected from Menstrual period)
Jump to: navigation, search

The menstrual cycle plays a role in the variation of symptoms and symptom severity in many immunological, neurological, and female predominant diseases.

Cycles and phases[edit | edit source]

Ovarian cycle[edit | edit source]

Follicular phase[edit | edit source]

Ovulation[edit | edit source]

Luteal phase[edit | edit source]

Uterine cycle[edit | edit source]

Menstruation[edit | edit source]

Proliferative phase[edit | edit source]

Secretory phase[edit | edit source]

Immune changes[edit | edit source]

Populations of Tregs increase peak just before ovulation and bottom out during the luteal phase, just before menstruation.

Progesterone and estrogen have anti-inflammatory effects.

Health effects in ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Women who develop CFS report at higher rates a history of irregular cycles, amenorrhea, anovolutory cycles and sporadic bleeding between periods.[1]

Numerous outbreaks of epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis noted menstrual irregularities and a tendency toward relapse before or during menstruation.[2][3][4]

Health effects in other conditions[edit | edit source]

The menstrual cycle can have effects on the timing and severity of symptoms of women suffering from many different conditions, including epilepsy, migraines, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome.[5]

Many women with epilepsy have patterns of seizure activity linked to their menstrual cycles, called catamenial epilepsy.[6][7][8][9] Seizure activity increases just before ovulation and just before menstruation.[10]

Abrupt estrogen withdrawal, such as what occurs just prior to menstruation, can trigger migraines.[11][12] Women with rheumatoid arthritis experienced reduced symptoms after ovulation, owing potentially to the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone and estrogen.[13]

In a retrospective study, 72% of women with fibromyalgia reported a worsening of symptoms just before their periods.[14]

Women with these diseases may experiencing a worsening of symptoms at specific points in their menstrual cycle, particularly just before or around their periods.[15]

Managing premenstrual symptoms[edit | edit source]

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are occasionally effective in women with menstrual migraine, as are beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ergotamine, antidepressants, estrogen and estradiol.[16]

Pathophysiology of menstrual symptoms[edit | edit source]

Estrogen may directly affect blood vessels by stimulating nitric oxide release. Women with a history of menstrual migraine had a heightened activation of the nitro oxide and L-arginine pathways, especially during the luteal phase.[17]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  2. Shelokov, Alexis; Habel, Karl; Verder, Elizabeth; Welsh, William (August 1957), "Epidemic Neuromyasthenia — An Outbreak of Poliomyelitis-like Illness in Student Nurses", New England Journal of Medicine, 1957 (257): 345-355, doi:10.1056/NEJM195708222570801 
  3. Albrecht, Robert (March 21, 1964). "Epidemic Neuromyasthenia Outbreak in a Convent in New York State". Journal of the American Medical Association. 187: 904–907. 
  4. Poskanzer, David C.; Henderson, Donald A.; Kunkle, E. Charles; Kalter, Seymour S.; Clement, Walter B.; Bond, James O. (1957), "Epidemic Neuromyasthenia — An Outbreak in Punta Gorda, Florida", New England Journal of Medicine, 1957 (257): 356-364, doi:10.1056/NEJM195708222570802, PMID 13464939 
  15. Zierau, Oliver (2012). "Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behavior". Front Immunol. 

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history