From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search

Melatonin is a hormone produced in the pineal gland which regulates sleep and wakefulness.[1] It is involved in the synchronization of circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake timing, blood pressure and body temperature regulation, cardiovascular efficiency and muscle strength, and many others.[2] Many of its biological effects are produced through activation of melatonin receptors,[3] while others are due to its role as an antioxidant,[4] with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.[5]

As a medicine, it is used for the treatment of insomnia, however, scientific evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a benefit in this area.[6]

Notable studies[edit]

Costs and availability[edit]

In Canada and the United States, melatonin is sold over-the-counter. In other countries, such as the United Kingdom, it is only available with a prescription.

Learn more[edit]


  1. Hardeland R, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP (March 2006), "Melatonin", The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 38 (3): 313–6, PMID 16219483, doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.08.020 
  2. Altun A, Ugur-Altun B (May 2007), "Melatonin: therapeutic and clinical utilization", Int. J. Clin. Pract., 61 (5): 835–45, PMID 17298593, doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01191.x 
  3. Boutin JA, Audinot V, Ferry G, Delagrange P (August 2005), "Molecular tools to study melatonin pathways and actions", Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 26 (8): 412–19, PMID 15992934, doi:10.1016/ 
  4. Hardeland R (July 2005), "Antioxidative protection by melatonin: multiplicity of mechanisms from radical detoxification to radical avoidance", Endocrine, 27 (2): 119–30, PMID 16217125, doi:10.1385/ENDO:27:2:119 
  5. Reiter RJ, Acuña-Castroviejo D, Tan DX, Burkhardt S (June 2001), "Free radical-mediated molecular damage. Mechanisms for the protective actions of melatonin in the central nervous system", Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 939: 200–15, PMID 11462772, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03627.x 
  6. Brasure M, MacDonald R, Fuchs E, Olson CM, Carlyle M, Diem S, Koffel E, Khawaja IS, Ouellette J, Butler M, Kane RL, Wilt TJ (December 2015), Management of Insomnia Disorder [Internet], PMID 26844312 
  7. Adamczyk-Sowa, M.; Sowa, P.; Adamczyk, J.; Niedziela, N.; Misiolek, H.; Owczarek, M.; Zwirska-Korczala, K. (April 2016), "Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma lipid hydroperoxides, homocysteine concentration and chronic fatigue syndrome in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferons-beta and mitoxantrone", Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, 67 (2): 235–242, ISSN 1899-1505, PMID 27226183 
  8. Williams, G.; Pirmohamed, J.; Minors, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Buchan, I.; Arendt, J.; Edwards, R. H. (July 1996), "Dissociation of body-temperature and melatonin secretion circadian rhythms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome", Clinical Physiology (Oxford, England), 16 (4): 327–337, ISSN 0144-5979, PMID 8842569 

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history