Interleukin 16 is a cytokine released by a variety of cells including lymphocytes and epithelial cells expressing the cell surface molecule CD4.
Function[edit | edit source]
It recruits and activates other cells expressing CD4, including lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils.
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Landi et al. (2016) found IL-16 to be significantly reduced (downregulated) in long term CFS patients. It is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and the reduction shown may indicate immunodeficiency.
In mice studies low IL-16 is correlated with impaired development of B cells. Most studies into human disease seem to show increases in IL-16 not a decrease (asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Lupus, MS). The other condition which shows a decrease is HIV and IL-16 may repress HIV-1 replication (Indinavir used in HIV patients increases circulating IL-16). IL-16 has a developmental role in the human immune system. It is also related to neuronal development and may account for brain fog symptoms.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2016, Reductions in circulating levels of IL-16, IL-7 and VEGF-A in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome - (Full text)
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ↑ http://www.bu.edu/interleukin-16/
- ↑ 2.02.1 Landi, Abdolamir; Broadhurst, David; Vernon, SuzanneD.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Houghton, Michael (February 2016). "Reductions in circulating levels of IL-16, IL-7 and VEGF-A in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". Cytokine. 78: 27–36. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2015.11.018.
cytokine any class of immunoregulatory proteins secreted by cells, especially immune cells. Cytokines are small proteins important in cell signaling that modulate the immune system. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)
The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.