Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep as long as desired. It can occur independently or as a result of another problem. It is a common symptom of ME/CFS.
Presentation[edit | edit source]
Insomnia is present when a patient finds it unusually difficult to fall asleep, maintain sleep, or wakes up early in the morning with an inability to return to sleep.
Insomnia can cause many secondary symptoms and problems, including fatigue, daytime sleepiness, feeling unrefreshed after sleep, irritability, anxiety, low energy, and depressed mood. Long-term insomnia can result in muscle weariness, hallucinations, mental fatigue and double vision.
Prevalence[edit | edit source]
Symptom recognition[edit | edit source]
- In the Holmes criteria, sleep disturbance (hypersomnia or insomnia) is an optional criteria for diagnosis, under the section Minor Symptom Criteria.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
Possible causes[edit | edit source]
Potential treatments[edit | edit source]
- Sleep hygiene advice
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Supplements, including boron and valerian
- Medications, including:
- benzodiazepines, e.g. temezapam
- Sedating antidepressants, particularly amitriptyline
- Off-label, quetiapine is sometimes used but should not be used in overweight people with CFS
- Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, commonly known as z-drugs, e.g. zopiclone
- Melatonin, either on prescription or as a supplement
Learn more[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.