Herpesviruses are a family of DNA viruses with extremely high prevalence rates. Once a human host is infected, the infection is life-long. While generally, immunocompetent hosts are able to keep the virus in a latent state and remain asymptomatic, several of these viruses can cause symptoms if they reactivate. They can also increase the risk of autoimmune disease and cancer.
Types[edit | edit source]
Viruses in this family include HSV-1 and HSV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (HHV4), which causes mononucleosis, Varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles. More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one of these viruses.
Latency[edit | edit source]
They share in common that after the initial infection, these viruses usually remain latent for life.
Reactivation[edit | edit source]
Several of these viruses have transactivating potential.
Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]
It is unclear whether herpesviruses associated with Chronic fatigue syndrome play an etiological role or are "bystanders" – opportunistic reactivations under a state of immune dysregulation. In the 1984 Incline village outbreak, Gary Holmes found that patients with what his team hypothesized was chronic Epstein-Barr had elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and measles viruses than age-matched controls. However, the study cohort was defined as patients who had experienced excessive fatigue between January 1 and September 15.
[edit | edit source]
- 2016, Herpesviruses dUTPases: A New Family of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Proteins with Implications for Human Disease
"In this review, we provide evidence from animal and human studies of the Epstein-Barr virus as a prototype, supporting the notion that herpesviruses dUTPases are a family of proteins with unique immunoregulatory functions that can alter the inflammatory microenvironment and thus exacerbate the immune pathology of herpesvirus-related diseases including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, autoimmune diseases, and cancer...[we] approached the possibility that two or more herpesviruses may act synergistically and that virus-encoded proteins, rather than the viruses themselves, may act as drivers of or contribute to the pathophysiological alterations observed in a subset of patients with ME/CFS."
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- 2018, A Common Virus May Play Role in Alzheimer’s Disease, Study Finds by Pam Belluck via NY Times
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- De Bolle, Leen; Naesens, Lieve (Jan 2005), "Update on Human Herpesvirus 6 Biology, Clinical Features, and Therapy", Clin Microbiol Rev, 8 (1): 217–245, doi:10.1128/CMR.18.1.217-245.200
- Reference needed.
- Experts Say There’s a Herpes-Alzheimer’s Link, Time, March 10, 2016
- Homes, Gary P (May 1, 1987). "A Cluster of Patients With a Chronic Mononucleosis-like Syndrome Is Epstein-Barr Virus the Cause?". Journal of the American Medical Association. 257: 2297–2302.
- Williams, Marshall V.; Cox, Brandon; Ariza, Maria Eugenia (2017), "Herpesviruses dUTPases: A New Family of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Proteins with Implications for Human Disease", Pathogens, 6 (1): 2, doi:10.3390/pathogens6010002