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Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain by blood-borne immune cells. It is not to be confused with neuroinflammation, which is the modern inflammation of the nervous system by tissue-resident immune cells. Unlike with neuroinflammation, encephalitis is associated with swelling of the brain and can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Viral encephalitis[edit | edit source]
More than 90% of viral encephalitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and enteroviruses.
List of all known viruses associated with encephalitis:
- encephalomyelitis virus (Western equine or Eastern equine)
- Ebola virus
- Epstein-Barr virus
- enteroviruses including coxsackieviruses, echo viruses and poliovirus
- flaviviruses, which causes Japanese encephalitis
- herpes simplex
- herpes zoster virus (shingles)
- La Crosse Virus, causing La Crosse or California encephalitis
- lassa virus
- lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
- Murray Valley encephalitis virus
- rabies virus
- Rocio virus
- St. Louis encephalitis virus, a flavivirus
- varicella zoster virus (chickenpox)
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
- West Nile virus
Prevalence[edit | edit source]
Symptom recognition[edit | edit source]
Research[edit | edit source]
In 2020, the Open Medicine Foundation announced a study investigating brain fog in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis, including following those patients over time to see which developed ME/CFS.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
Possible causes[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- Encephalitis - Merck Manuals
- Viral encephalitis - Better Health, Australia
- ICD-11 - World Health Organization
References[edit | edit source]
- "Encephalitis - Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders". MSD Manual Consumer Version. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- Venkatesan, Arun; Geocadin, Romergryko G. (Jun 2014). "Diagnosis and management of acute encephalitis". Neurology: Clinical Practice. 4 (3): 206–215. doi:10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000036. ISSN 2163-0402. PMC . PMID 25110619.
- World Health Organization. "ICD-11 - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- World Health Organization. "ICD-11 - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". International Classification of Diseases. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- Services, Department of Health & Human. "Viral encephalitis". www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
enterovirus - A genus of RNA viruses which typically enter the body through the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems and sometimes spread to the central nervous system or other parts of the body, causing neurological, cardiac, and other damage. Since the first reports of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), enteroviruses have been suspected as a cause of ME. Enteroviruses have also been implicated as the cause of Type I diabetes, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. Enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, and many others. New enteroviruses and new strains of existing enteroviruses are continuously being discovered. (Learn more: viralzone.expasy.org)
World Health Organization (WHO) - "A specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations." The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is maintained by WHO. (Learn more: en.wikipedia.org)