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Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid produced in the large intestine by the fermentation of dietary fiber by commensal bacteria and is an important source of energy for colon cells.

It has been studied for its possible benefits in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), the mucosal immune system, intestinal motility, hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke.[1]

Butyrate is a histamine agonist.[citation needed]

It decreases intestinal permeability.[citation needed]

Sodium phenylbutyrate may increase peroxisome proliferation and the β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy[2]

Butyrate may down regulate the expression of nine genes involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol in the intestine.[3]

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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio (March 28, 2011), "Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases", World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG, 17 (12): 1519–1528, doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i12.1519, ISSN 1007-9327, PMC 3070119, PMID 21472114, retrieved November 9, 2016
  2. Kemp, S.; Wei, H. M.; Lu, J. F.; Braiterman, L. T.; McGuinness, M. C.; Moser, A. B.; Watkins, P. A.; Smith, K. D. (November 1998), "Gene redundancy and pharmacological gene therapy: implications for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy", Nature Medicine, 4 (11): 1261–1268, doi:10.1038/3242, ISSN 1078-8956, PMID 9809549
  3. Alvaro, Adriana; Solà, Rosa; Rosales, Roser; Ribalta, Josep; Anguera, Anna; Masana, Lluís; Vallvé, Joan Carles (November 2008), "Gene expression analysis of a human enterocyte cell line reveals downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in response to short-chain fatty acids", IUBMB life, 60 (11): 757–764, doi:10.1002/iub.110, ISSN 1521-6551, PMID 18642346

agonist A chemical that binds to the receptor and stimulates it's function, e.g., morphine is an opioid agonist that binds to the opioid receptor, reducing pain. The opposite of an antagonist.

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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.