Bitter fennel

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Bitter fennel or bitter fennel fruit.[1][2][3][4]

Alternative names[edit | edit source]

  • Foeniculi amari fructus[1][3]

Theory[edit | edit source]

Evidence[edit | edit source]

The European Union's Committee on Herbal Medicine recognizes sweet fennl's use for:

Clinicians[edit | edit source]

Risks and side effects[edit | edit source]

  • allergic reactions

The European Union Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products states to avoid using it if hypersensitive or allergic to the active substance, any of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family (aniseed, caraway, celery, coriander and dill), or to anethole.[1] Can cause allergic reactions affecting the skin and breathing.[4]

  • hormonal effects

The EU Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products states that bitter fennel causes oestrogenic activity, and that "excessive doses of fennel oil" may interfere with prescription medication including hormone therapy, oral contraceptive pills, and hormone replacement therapy..[1]

  • possible harmful effects

Studies on nice have shown a link to liver cancer, and other effects.[1]

Costs and availability[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

adverse reaction - Any unintended or unwanted response to the treatment under investigation in a clinical trial.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.