Adrenergic receptor

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The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of guanine nucleotide regulatory binding protein receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).[1] Adrenergic receptors mediate the effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and many adrenergic prescription drugs.[2]

Alpha adrenergic receptors[edit | edit source]

Alpha adrenergic receptors or adrenergic receptors, also known as α-ARs or α-AdRs.

The alpha adrenergic receptors are:

  • α1-AR
  • α2-AR

Beta adrenergic receptors[edit | edit source]

Beta adrenergic or β adrenergic receptors are also known as β-ARs or β AdR, have a key role in cardiac regulation.[1]

The beta-adrenergic receptors are:

  • β1-AdR
  • β2-AdR
  • β3-AdR[1]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

In 2015, a relatively large German study found 29% of ME/CFS patients had elevated autoantibodies to M3 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as ß2 adrenergic receptors.[3]

In 2020, a small Sweden study confirmed these results in two different patient cohorts, but did not find a relationship between adrenergic receptors and the severity of ME.[4] The study assessed patients with moderate ME who met the Canadian and international consensus criteria for ME, plus the Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease criteria, and found that the majority of patients had raised blood plasma concentration of β1, β2, M3 and M4-receptor autoantibodies but cerebral spinal fluid levels were normal. Only 25% of healthy controls had raised autoantibody levels.[4] These findings supported the autoimmune hypothesis for a subset of patients.

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2016, Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[3] - (Full Text)
  • 2020, Autoantibodies to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) patients – A validation study in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from two Swedish cohorts[4] - (Full text)

News articles and blogs[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.11.2 Wachter, S. Blake; Gilbert, Edward M. (2012). "Beta-Adrenergic Receptors, from Their Discovery and Characterization through Their Manipulation to Beneficial Clinical Application". Cardiology. 122 (2): 104–112. doi:10.1159/000339271. ISSN 0008-6312. PMID 22759389. 
  2. Bylund, D. B. (Jan 1, 2013). Lennarz, William J.; Lane, M. Daniel, eds. "Adrenergic Receptors". Waltham: Academic Press: 57–60. ISBN 978-0-12-378631-9. 
  3. 3.03.1 Loebel, M; Grabowski, P; Heidecke, H; Bauer, S; Hanitsch, LG; Wittke, K; Meisel, C; Reinke, P; Volk, H; Fluge, Ø; Mella, O; Scheibenbogen, C (2016). "Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Brain, behavior, and immunity. 52: 32-39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.013. 
  4. 4.04.14.2 Bynke, Annie; Julin, Per; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Heidecke, Harald; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Bergquist, Jonas (Aug 1, 2020). "Autoantibodies to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) patients – A validation study in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from two Swedish cohorts". Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 7: 100107. doi:10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100107. ISSN 2666-3546. 

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

plasma - The liquid part of blood, lymph, or milk after removing any suspended material. Most of the time, "plasma" simply refers to blood, after all the blood cells have been removed. If you also remove the clotting factors, then the plasma is referred to as "serum".

antibody - Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.